Two important components of Russian national self-consciousness - the attraction to truth and attitude to lie - are discussed. The likeness and differences of the notions of "truth" and "justice" and typical peculiarities of its use by Russian writers, philosophers, psychologists are analysed. The thesis stating Russian preference for ethical category in communication rather than informative aspect of "truth" is substantiated. Including the notion of "truth" into moral philosophy and psychology area, Russians find it possible to manipulate the truth and to use white lie. This observation is proved by experiments in modem psychology of comprehension. The phenomena of moral and reflexive lie are shown: most of the subjects are ready to perjury in order to save innocent person.