1994'1, p.142
Ruzgis P.
Culture and intelligence: Cross-cultural investigations of implicit theories fo intelligence

An examination of implicit theories of intelligence obtained through resrarch in a range of cultures indicates considerable variation in the meaning of intelligence. While the implicit theories research reviewed supports the current notion of intelligence as adaptation it also suggests the need to expand the role of social competence in future theory development. This is particularly evident given the importance of social competence to notions of intelligence in a number of non-Western cultures. Any universal theory of intelligence must include both a social competence aspekt and account for the variation in notions of social competence across cultures.