System crisis in psychology
The main reasons and manifestations of contemporary crisis in psychology are considered and systematized. The author shows that it is most evident due to the absence of scientific unity. There is a gap between research and practical applications and parascience's increasing rivalry. These phenomena arise from general crises of rationalism, fundamental science and positive model of cognition.
The influence of senior preschoolers' intellect on educative efficacy
G.P. Antonova, Z.I. Ikunina, I.P. Antonova, N.A. Antonova
The developmental levels of verbal and non-verbal intellect as compared to the characteristics of analytic-synthetic activity in 6-year-olds were experimentally investigated. The instructions were given in abstract (1 stage) and in concrete-graphic (2 stage) forms. It was shown that (1) preschoolers' analytic-synthetic activity was closely connected to their intellectual characteristics and (2) educative efficacy is influenced not only by the developmental level of intellectual and analytic-synthetic activity, but by their components ratio.
On gender analysis usage in psychological studies
Gender analysis contrary to traditional is based on holistic socio-cultural matrix and allows to under-stand the reasons of gender differences other than biological ones. The examples of gender analysis usage on identity and self-appraisal development in senior preschoolers and junior schoolchildren studies show their advantages in problem comprehension.
System differentiation principle in ecological education
The author employs classical notions of neuro-psychology and some findings of psycholinguistics for the analyzing of ecological education problems. Several practical recommendations are offered.
"Activity subject" in creativity context
An approach to the notions of creativity and giftedness free of giftedness interpretation as an explanatory principle is offered. An attempt to represent their operational psychological content is made. Self-governed development of activity not prompted by utilitary need (situative un-stimulated productive activity) is considered to be a manifestation of real creativity.
Students-psychologists' professional notions
A.I. Dontsov, G.M. Belokrylova
The results of Moscow university students-psychologists' examination on their professional notions and their dynamics during education are presented. These notions are found to be formed on the border of scientific-psychological and everyday practical cognition of human psychological nature and that of society. As a result students' views are contradictory, eclectic, stereotypical. Professional notions structure and functions are described.
Emotion categorization empirical analysis
Inner structure of the notion "emotion" in the framework of prototypic approach is analyzed. The characteristics of productive frequency, prototypicity, categorical dominance were studied on representative sample. The notion of "emotion" has graduated inner structure and indistinct borders substantiating prototypical approach.
Culture, emotions and psychic health
A.B. Kholmogorova, N.G. Garanyan
The most important factor in the rise of the number of emotional disturbances is considered to be negative attitude toward emotions and rationalization characterizing modern culture. Multi-level psychological model of depressive and somato-form disturbances, including cultural, family, interpersonal and personal factors is offered. The cult of success, achievement and strength leads to prohibition of feeling and negative emotions manifestations combined with general rise of stressogenic circumstances. The problems of emotional education in the family are discussed.
Human nature according to A.Maslow concepts
The concept of human being inner nature is the central core of A. Maslow's humanistic psychology program. His spiritual testament - "Toward a psychology of being" - contains two models, two views on human inner nature. One of them represents it from the position of ethical naturalism as inner quite individual and self-reliant factor of human full value. The other approach considers human inner nature to be a result of specific vital material's development beginning with the start of ontogenesis. The features of the second model are analyzed and interpreted with the aid of cultural-anthropological imprinting notion.
Humanism with a face of cultural- anthropological prototype: Russian variant
The author carries on a controversy with A.A. Piskoppel's understanding of A. Maslow's concept of human being inner nature. The detailed critical commentary on A.A. Piskoppel's publication is offered. The analysis of A. Maslow's position and conceptual approaches shows some typical errors (projections) committed by Russian (Soviet) psychology when it tries to cope with American humanistic psychology. All efforts to "develop" A. Maslow's "basic assumptions" in the direction of social (cultural) behaviorism are cast doubt on.
A. Binet as one of the founders of experimental psychology
The author describes scientific works of famous French psychologist and their impact on contemporary and modern psychology.
Intonation skills development due to complex audio and visual stimuli influence
V.P. Ryazansky, A.V. Kornev
The authors describe an apparatus enabling musical students to observe visually if their performance is intonationally correct.
The main trends in studies of creativeness in science and art
L.Ya. Dorfman, G.V. Kovaleva
The authors review contemporary investigations in the field of modern foreign psychology of creativeness.