Psychological trends of teacher's interpersonal contradictions
Teacher's interpersonal contradictions are considered to be motive powers of professional development. Typology of interpersonal contradictions is based on adequacy of their realization and on direction of their solution. There are four types of interpersonal contradictions: 1) adequate realization - constructive solution; 2) adequate realization - destructive solution; 3) inadequate realization - constructive solution; 4) inadequate realization - destructive solution. Psychological analysis of each type allows to work out and apply concrete programs of teacher's professional development correction.
10-12-year-olds: "No man's land" in developmental psychology
The goal of the review of studies in 10-12-year-olds is to solve practical problem of optimal conditions of education for them. The data are controversial. 10-12-year-olds are different from junior schoolchildren but at the same time they need gradual environmental changes for non-traumatic transition from junior schoolchild's state to adolescence. The author argues that the principal motive power for such a transition in psychic development is reflection. The reflection serves child's self-consciousness, child's ability for self-development. It must be taken into account when the problem of individualisation in learning activity is considered.
Ethnical self-consciousness formation in the course of higher education
The author determines the ethnical self-consciousness as comparatively stable system of realized opinions on existing ethno-differentiating and ethno-integrating signs of ethno-cultural environment. As a result of such a system formation the person considers oneself to be a subject of ethnical community. The author compares the data of experimental studies on ethnical self-consciousness in Russian and in Udmurtian students and comes to the conclusion that the development and formation of ethnic self-consciousness is an important condition of ethnic individuality development. The author considers the creation of favourable conditions for the formation and development of ethnical self-consciousness to be an important goal for educative system.
Longitude study of generalized cognitive characteristics in twins
The author analyses the correlation between the most generalized characteristics of cognitive activity - intelligence and image-visual thinking and investigates the changes in these correlation during age-specific development. Special attention is paid to the role of genotypic factors deter-mining such changes. The results of phenotypic and genetic correlation analysis show that image-visual characteristics at pre-school and junior school age are predictive for later levels of intelligence development.
Popular and rejected pre-schoolers' attitude to peers
E.O. Smirnova, E.V. Kalyagina
Different aspects of communication competence (cognitive, behavioral and emotional) were compared in two samples of 5-6-year-old children - popular and rejected ones. The results show that there are no differences in social status, general intelligence and communicative activity between the samples. The main differences were found in emotional characteristics. Popular children as compared to rejected ones demonstrate empathy, attention to peer's actions, and helping behavior. Rejected children demonstrate mainly aggressive or indifferent attitude towards peers.
Concerning group interrelations of gifted pre-schoolers
Special features in interrelations of gifted preschoolers brought up together are discussed. The author maintains that specificity of group interrelations among such children is characterized by well-wishing in interpersonal relations and competitiveness in business ones. Personal characteristics of gifted children making for specific group interrelations are shown.
Altered states of consciousness: Psychological analysis
V.V. Kucherenko, V.F. Petrenko, A.V. Rossokhin
The problem of altered states of consciousness psychological analysis is discussed. Phenomenology of altered states of consciousness and literary review of the matter are presented. The criteria of such states are presented: altered form of categorization; subject's estrangement from one's own psychic products; the changes of inner experience emotional coloring; breach of consequence in inner reality events; changes in time perception. The authors' own methods of altered states of consciousness rehabilitation are described.
Psychological cues for the assessment of trustworthiness and falsity of reports
Experimental data show that assessing a report as trustworthy people are included to judge by general impression of a speaker. They admit a report to be false basing on concrete features of a speaker.
Image and planning of future managerial career
The paper analyses the specification of future managerial career image. The results of research on spacing, longevity, intensity, levels and supplementary image descriptions are discussed. Special attention is paid to psychological aspect of career planning and the scheme of goal-setting is presented.
Cognitive need: The levels of development and manifestation in thinking
The author investigates the levels of cognitive need development and their influence on processual features of thinking and on situative characteristics of cognitive need. The usage of two approaches - the study of actualized motives method (AMM) and interruption of problem solving - is illustrated by experiment in chess players.
Human spirituality mirrored in psychological knowledge and in religious faith
Scientific psychological and theological approaches to human spirituality are analyzed. Principal differences in the interpretation of "knowledge" and "truth" notions in science and religion are shown. The author argues that not every scientific knowledge is connected with spiritual "I". The knowledge becomes spiritual only when it becomes personally meaningful. Four basic directions of spirituality investigation (the looking for spirituality roots in culture; situative and personal factors of spiritual states origin analysis; the studies of spirituality as self-development and self-realization; consideration of spirituality as a divine revelation in Christian psychology) are analyzed.
Social context as a factor of minority and majority interrelation
A.I. Dontsov, M.Yu. Tokareva
The limitations of S. Moscovici's traditional experimental scheme of minority influence are analyzed: social context of minority and majority differentiation is ignored; dummies-subjects are used; the tasks for them make no sense; minority and majority interaction is passive. The principles and results of empirical study following traditional scheme but overcoming above mentioned limitations are presented. The data obtained show that active interaction of real representatives of social majority and minority on problems important for personality and for society are accompanied by consolidation of dominating point of view. Minority influence phenomenon as an alternative for social conformity was not proved experimentally.
A method for combinatorial abilities diagnostics
"Combinatory task" method is offered. Its goal is to examine ability to form images using aesthetic principle of rhythm. The method can be used in schoolchildren individually and in group (during a lesson). Qualitative and quantitative data processing produces two scales: general and age-specific.
Vocational orientation of students in case of education specialisation
The means of subjective adolescents' activity are investigated. They allow to differentiate the students for specialized education and vocational orientation. The modification of E.A. Klimov's method in combination with modified tapping-test makes it possible to expose individual vocational interests as well as real abilities and skills.