Childhood as socio-psychological phenomenon and special state of development
The necessity to approach childhood as special permanently reproduced state of society and at the same time as special whole inside of it is substantiated. The childhood is complex in structure and content and functionally obligatory phenomenon with its own laws, development and self-development trends. Its principal feature is constant change-maturation-development. Real contacts of adult world and childhood are shown. Subject — object interaction principle demanding new quality of adult approach to childhood and differentiated treatment of its various periods is underlined.
Psychological problems of education anthropologization
The psychologists' role in planning and working out of “humanology” curriculum cannot be limited only to psychological part's authorship. They must theoretically substantiate general principles of all the courses. Pedagogically oriented concept of personal development is necessary for that. Such a concept based on L.S. Vygotsky's school genetic psychology, S.L.Frank's philosophical psychology, E. Erikson's theory of psychosocial development, as well as empirical approach to “humanology” curriculum working out is presented.
Poetical form perception in adolescence and youth
Principal change of poetical form perception during the transition from adolescence to youth is qualitative transformation of its structure. The criteria of text evaluation become integral, including form as well as content. The notion of poetical style is formed.
Integral approach to teacher's personality model
Teacher's personality hypothetical model is considered on the basis of integral approach. The personality is thought to be a functional organ for human nature appropriation. The model is based on B.S. Bratus “personal senses” scale and P.Florensky's and V. Solovyev's philosophical views. The category of “personal negentropy” is offered.
On psychological knowledge systems (new psychological text-books analysis)
Contemporary Russian psychological text-books (A.V. Petrovsky's; R.S. Nemov's; V.I. Slobodchikov's and E.I. Isaev's) are analyzed and underlying systems of psychological knowledge compared. The first text-book is based on indistinct activity approach; the second one contains more complete concrete scientific data but employs positivistic approach, making construction of psychological system difficult; the third is based on humanistic psychology approach, which does not allow complete psychological issues review. These text-books are compared to American ones.
Psychosemantic study of everyday ecological notions
Everyday notions on ecologically significant actions were studied. The differences in ecological notions functioning on different levels of reflection are considered. Stable categorical structure connected to perception of ecologically significant actions is found.
Concerning the source of creative abilities
Non-traditional approach to creative abilities, artistic in particular, is offered. The creativeness is considered to be realization of “higher self” in any field of activity. As a base of creative ability special integral attitude to life is marked out, owing to which separate psychical qualities become creative abilities and experience becomes a source of intentions in special sphere, especially in art.
Psycholinguistic analysis of poetic creativeness
Yu.P. Shepeleva, V.I. Batov, V.M. Petrov
The study using the Lingva-Express method to make a psycholinguistic contentanalysis of poetic texts has shown for the first time ever that Russian poetic culture (at least in the first half of the 19th century) really is a very sensitive barometer of the country's social order transformations. Psychosocial component of Russian poetry has become a fact of experimental observation.
V.S. Merlin — researcher and educator
B.A. Vyatkin, E.A. Silina
The authors describe scientific and pedagogical achievements of well-known Russian psychologist V.S. Merlin.
The lines to V.S. Merlin's portrait E.A. Klimov
Well-known Russian psychologist E.A. Klimov presents his reminiscences on his contacts with his teacher V.S. Merlin.
Psychological education in Samara district at the beginning of XX century
The author describes different examples of psychology application to educative practice in Samara and its district and the role of some well-known scientists in it.
The teaching on environment in pedological works of L.S. Vygotsky
A.N. Leontiev's unpublished article, found in his archive, is offered to public attention.
Commentary on A.N. Leontiev's manuscript
A.A. Leontiev, D.A. Leontiev
A.N. Leontiev's son and grandson describe the circumstances of manuscript's origination and contemporary situation in psychology.
Psychophysiology of individual differences in early childhood: Modern state of problem
T.A. Stroganova, E.V. Orekhova
The review of foreign and Russian studies describes some of modern theories on psychobiology of development and new approaches to genetic and epigenetic sources of enfants' psychophysiologic individual differences. The results of experimental examination of intraindividual variativeness in brain mechanisms regulating emotions and attention in babies are considered. The authors discuss validity and prognostic value of psychophysiologic individual characteristics' evaluation in early childhood.