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From classic psychology to organic one

V.P. Zinchenko


L.S. Vygotsky's cultural-historical psychology is considered to be classic-organic psychology. Its organicity is a result of lifting the opposition between objective and subjective (in psyche, consciousness and life). The author shows that affective-sensorial formations constructing culture (ideal forms) are objective as well as subjective. The same formations constructing individual psyche and consciousness (real forms) are subjective as well as objective. The correlations between ideal and real forms are described as mutual outcome of them. The processes of outcome are due to mediators: Another (I - You correlation), sign, word, symbol, myth. The mediators as well as real and ideal forms possess subjective-objective properties (outer and inner forms). That is why they can be mediating in the acts of mutual outcomes of ideal and real forms. The organicity of Vygotsky's cultural-historical psychology is due to primary compatibility of complimentarity, congeniality of ideal, real and mediating forms, resulting in a new ontology of psychological science. When cultural-historical psychology reveals the acts of outcome mechanisms, it would become event-historical one.


The notion of activity as a basis

for the studies of L.S. Vygotsky's

scientific school

V.V. Davydov

The author presents overwhelming argumentation of successive character of activity approach in Russian psychology as related to L.S. Vygotsky's cultural-historical theory. Historiographic arguments are used as well as theoretical ones. The author's views are especially important in the framework of long-standing discussion on inner connection between two most wellknown scientific schools in Russian psychology.


Two paradigms in child's

development studies

L.F. Obukhova

Two scientific paradigms in child's development studies - natural-scientific and cultural-historical - are presented. The author employs the term "paradigm" as a notion mirroring the basis of scientific knowledge in developmental psychology. The author argues that the most important concepts developing in the framework of both paradigms can exist as parallel events and to be quite fruitful but cannot be united into one system because of different bases.


Integral division into periods of general psychic development

V.I. Slobodchikov, G.A. Tsuckerman

The basis, sense and scheme of division into periods of subject's development in different types of human unity and in the whole life span are presented. The authors take part in the discussion with theoretical views of E. Erikson L. Vygotsky and D. El'konin.


L.S. Vygotsky and M.M. Bakhtin: Preparatory data to the dialogue

which has not taken place

A.A. Melik-Pashaev

Comparative analysis of some aspects of L.S. Vygotsky's and M.M. Bakhtin's scientific heritage is presented. The author demonstrates important differences between these outstanding scientists due to the differences in their scientific outlook and understanding of human nature. On the other hand their views - just because of differences - are productively supplementing each other in many important spheres of creativity and art.


L.S. Vygotsky and D.B. El'konin:

Sign mediation

B.D. El'konin

The author presents D.B. El'konin's reflections on aggregate activity and sign mediation, based on analysis of L.S. Vygotsky's cultural-historical theory. These reflections lead to the notion of mediating open action as an action characterized by including into one person's actions the orientation to another person's actions.


"Interesting psychology":

L.S. Vygotsky and L.I. Bozhovich

A.M. Prikhozhan, N.N. Tolstykh

L.S. Vygotsky's ideas development by his follower - well-known Russian psychologist L.I. Bozhovich - is discussed. The sources of her personality development theory are analyzed and their correlation to cultural-historical theory is shown. L.S.Vygotsky's and L.I.Bozhovich's views on the roles played by the theory, experiment and practice are presented.


The role of L.S. Vygotsky

in A.R. Luria's scientific work

E.D. Khomskaya

Methodological, theoretical and biographical aspects of L.S.Vygotsky and A.R.Luria contacts are shown. Their interrelations, A.R. Luria part in cultural-historical theory formation and L.S. Vygotsky's influence on A.R. Luria's scientific experimental work (genesis and disintegration of psychic functions in children; cross-cultural study of social factors in cognitive processes' formation in adults; neuro-psychological analysis of brain organization of higher psychic functions) are described. The main methodological and theoretical positions uniting L.S.Vygotsky and A.R.Luria are demonstrated and high productivity of L.S.Vygotsky's ideas and their creative development by A.R. Luria are shown.


L.S. Vygotsky and A.R. Luria:

Initial stages of neuro-psychology

T.V. Akhoutina

L.S. Vygotsky's approach to the problem "brain - consciousness" on different stages of his creative life is described. L.S. Vygotsky's role in Russian neuro-psychology formation is outlined. Three main fields of study initiated by L.S.Vygotsky are presented; special attention is paid to one of them: psychological systems and their fate - where the part, played by his follower and friend A.R. Luria, resulted in neuro-psychology formation. Scientific heritage of L.S. Vygotsky and A.R. Luria is considered to be successive.


The problems of abilities' development: Before and after L.S. Vygotsky

O.M. D'yachenko

The analysis of abilities' development in the framework of cultural-historical paradigm is presented. Abilities' genesis is connected to the forming of species features and individual differences are connected to the level of abilities' development. The author shares the views of A.V.Zaporozhets, V.V.Davydov, L.A.Venger and others: the leading part in the mastering of human experience is played by the mastering of means to orient oneself into reality; it determines the successfulness of actions as well as the rate of applied skills mastering.


When have L.S. Vygotsky and

his scientific school appeared

in psychology?

M.G. Yaroshevsky

The beginnings of L.S. Vygotsky's scientific career in psychology are described. Most of the studies place it in 1924, when L.S. Vygotsky came to Moscow from Gomel and together with A.N. Leont'ev and A.R. Luria founded "cultural-historical school". The author argues that there were previous periods of scientific work: Moscow pre-Revolutionary ("Hamlet" treatise), Gomel ("Pedagogical psychology") and Moscow earlier post-revolutionary (defectology studies, "Psychology of art"). The author criticizes A.M. Etkind's views on determining influence of S. Freud's follower S. Spielrein and her concept of "inclination to destruction" on L.S. Vygotsky: on the contrary, L.S. Vygotsky and A.R. Luria presented their own interpretation of "death instinct" -creativeness is social opposition to it.


Daughter's reminiscences

G.L. Vygodskaya

G.L. Vygodskaya - L.S. Vygotsky's daughter - describes the last period of famous psychologist's life and scientific activity.


L.S. Vygotsky's works bibliography

in Russian and foreign languages

T.M. Lifanova

The author presents the most detailed bibliography of L.S. Vygotsky's works, published till 1996.