SUMMARIES

 

Down the rabbit-hole: Metaphor and nonsense in child's imagination

Ye.Ye. Sapogova

This article explores the question of the instrumentality of children's comprehension and interpretation of metaphor and nonsense for the development of imagination and creativity. It provides a theoretical foundation and experimental data relevant to the investigation of the inner mechanisms of imagination. The author argues that imagination is an aspect of sign-symbol activity and one of the conditions for creativity development. From this point of view, metaphorisation and nonsense interpretation are sense-oriented substitutions. Original experimental data (measurement of unknown object's attributes by known characteristics, metaphor's animation and independent structuring, attribution and interpretation of nonsense, etc.) demonstrate that stimulation of the construction of new contexts (frames) helps to build new ontogeny fragments and create new senses.

 

The development of child's views on family interrelations

T.I. Pukhova

The author presents her experience in testing kindergarten children who were asked to imagine the dolls being family members. The results of the test can be used for child's development and family situation evaluation.

 

Exercises for image-spatial and verbal thinking interaction development

E.V. Zaika

12 exercises in the form of entertainment, aiming at the formation and development of image-spatial and verbal thinking interaction, are described. The exercises are useful for left and right hemispheric coordination development.

 

Problems of gifted females' self-realization

L.V. Popova

Review of the factors limiting gifted females' development and self-realization is presented. Gender stereotypes of parents, teachers, sexism in school textbooks that influence self-perception, self-esteem, career aspiration and achievement of gifted females are analyzed. Developmental patterns of gifted females in contemporary theories are considered.

 

Psychological predictors of individual development

I.V. Ravich-Shcherbo, T.M. Maryutina, V.N. Trubnikov, E.S. Belova, E.F. Kiriakidi

Individual characteristics were twice (at an age of 2,3 years and at an age of 7,8 years) diagnosed in 36 twin pairs. For the former two, Baily scales (intellectual development and behavior evaluation) were used; for the latter Stanford Binet test (intellect), Torrance test (creativity), Liders test (school readiness). Mother's characteristics were evaluated too (intellect, extra-version, neuroticism). Children's weight at birth was registered. Predictors were found by means of multiple regression analysis. A predictor's value was the highest when it was connected to the same variable as the response or when it was of a complex nature. It can be assumed that predictors are connected to the responses by common genetic factors.

 

Modelling by means of LISREL:

Genetic and environmental components of interindividual variance connected to field dependence-independence

E.L. Grigorenko, M.C. LaBuda

This article reports a model-fitting analysis of the covariance structure of the field dependence-independence data. A model is used which includes additive and non-additive genetic parameters, and shared and nonshared environmental parameters that permit different estimates for different types of relatives. The opportunity is taken here to explicate the use of LISREL for such purposes. The results indicate that, when assortative mating is included in the model, nonadditive, as well as additive genetic variance is important for the field dependence-independence cognitive style. Broad heritability is estimated to be 0.50. Another interesting result is that the influence of nonshared environment seems to be crucial when accounting for variance in different groups of relatives.

 

Metaphor as an object of psychological and philosophical investigation

K.I. Alexeev

Psychological and philosophical aspects of metaphor comprehension are reviewed. The possibilities in this sphere offered by different approaches are illustrated. The difference between comprehension and differentiation is emphasized. It is argued that comprehension of metaphor is subject to the laws governing comprehension of literal expressions. Metaphors specificity manifests themselves during differentiation.

 

Siegmund Freud

C.G.Jung

A chapter of C.G. Jung's book (Memories. Dreams. Reflections. Penguin, 1967) is presented. The publication commemorates the 120-th anniversary C.G. Jung's birth and 35 years since his death.

 

Family structure and child's cognitive development

T.A. Dumitrashku

The influences of family size and birth order on cognitive development in children are analyzed. For this sample of low socio-economic status families, the above-mentioned factors are negatively correlated to cognitive development, more markedly for large families than for one-child ones; family size effect is greater than that of birth order. The latter in turn depends on sibs' gender configuration and on parents' cognitive and personal characteristics. Mother's and father's influence on children's cognitive development characteristics are not equivalent.

 

Verbal-sense analysis system in junior schoolchildren and its development

N.P. Lokalova

The results of experimental research show that the development of different types of verbal-sense analysis is based on a universal law of system differentiation. There is a close relationship between the success of the leading idea in fiction comprehension and the ability to semantically discriminate verbal stimuli. There are marked differences in effectiveness and level of the verbal-sense analysis system development in schoolchildren depending on traditional or developmentally oriented school programmes.

 

Mental development in preschoolers:

A method of mediated express-diagnostics

P.A. Myasoed

A method of mental development diagnosis in 36-years-olds is offered. Its object is not a child himself but the child's image in perception of persons in intimate contact with the child. Personal evaluation is transformed into relative and then into standard ones. The method is found to be valid and differentiating. It can be used as a means for mediated rapid diagnosis.