The chief editor of «Voprosy psychologii» describes the history and perspectives of the journal.
Personal-developing higher education is considered as one of four strategies of humanization. It is characterized by the influence of high level generalization. The influence of generalization factor on all the elements of the triad — practice, science and education — is shown. General principles of personal-developing higher education and components of its realization are formulated.
Following F.E. Vasilyuk, the author considers the starting point for analysis of the structure of symbols to be the psycho-semiotic model of consciousness image. A projective picture «My family» symbolics was used as experimental data. The specificity of unconscious display of every basic notion in image theoretic model — object content, sign, meaning and personal sense — is discussed. The author places special emphasis on the sense component: it manifests itself spontaneuosly through object images and meanings of the picture. In addition, the symbolic image in its endless sense perspective possesses not only individual but timeless supra-individual sense, which can be understood as a manifestation of spiritual reality.
Characteristics of interpersonal relations in specialized boarding schools
Interpersonal relations among inmates of boarding schools for gifted adolescents are analysed. External, institutional psychological closedness results in internal psychological closedness. Educative-professional activity becomes very important for the students. Both these factors lead to the formation of strict intragroup status differentiation and to the development of «castes» that are defined in opposition to each other. A teacher in such an institution often interacts with adolescents according to already existing system of interrelations and so indirectly promotes informal structure of such associations, contradicting educative purposes of boarding school.
More than twenty exercises and entertaining plays are described. They are aimed at forming skills necessary for fluent, correct and meaningful reading. The exercises are recommended for schoolchildren experiencing chronic reading difficulties.
Walter Cannon, Ivan Pavlov and the problem of emotional behavior
W. Cannon's theory of emotions denied James-Lange hypothesis of body — consciousness dualism. The latter was critisized by L.S. Vygotsky as well as Scheler-Diltey intentional theory. There was close personal and scientific bondage between W. Cannon and I. Pavlov. W. Cannon included the concept of conditioned reflex in Ms theory of emotional behavior. I. Pavlov included subcortex functions, corresponding to Cannon's «main emotions», into the scheme of higher nervous activity. W. Cannon and I. Pavlov both considered the behavior concept to be different from psychology of consciousness and from neurophysiology.
A. van Waning
The works of Russian psychoanalyst Sabina Spielrein (1885—1942) are reviewed. S. Spielrein played a special and intriguing role in the development of psychoanalytic thinking in the beginning of the century. After having been intimately involved with Jung in personal and professional ways, later on in her life she adhered more to the Freudian psychoanalytic approach. She kept corresponding with both men for many years. Her own articles, 32 in number, have gotten little attention so far, except for «Destruction as a cause of coming into being» in which she anticipated the «death wish» concept. The themes of love, destruction and creativity are woven into her work and life. The diversity of partners she chose to work with — next to Jung and Freud also with Piaget — and her linguistic and neuropsychological interests show her to be a versatile and self-willed pioneer. It is concluded that so far S. Spielrein has not received the recognition she deserves.
Clinical psychology: the works of Russian psychiatrists of late XIX century
Before the victory of Vundt's views on the psychological experiment the latter was considered to be a natural phenomenon — mental disease or psychological changes due to hypnosis. Clinical psychology produced the first model of experimentation. The author describes Russian psychiatrists' contribution in experimental-psychological studies.
The author presents her memories on remarkable Russian psychologist D.G. EF-kin and his works.
The role of motivation and stimulation in integral individuality structures formation
V.V. Bclous, T.V. Kopan'
The roles of achievement motivation and the social world in the formation of integral individuality structures is shown. When social characteristics are equal, success achievement motives calls forth different sides of integral individuality. When success achievement motives are equal and social characteristics are different (urban environment versus rural one), identical integral individuality structures are demonstrated.
Temperament at an early age: Parental estimates and family characteristics
Stable behavior style in day nursery children and in their parents is examined by means of questionnaires. The multi-dimensional structure of temperament is demonstrated, maternal and paternal estimates are compared and social-economical position of a family and its influence on children's temperament evaluated. It is shown that temperament in young children can be conditioned by psycho-physiological characteristics such as inhibition system. Environmental factors play their role in temperament formation too. Temperament is an important parameter in the formation of life style.
The method to evaluate individual psychological prerequisites for driver's activity
The author reviews different tests of driver's competence and discusses its connection to personal traits. The results of a study in experienced and unexperienced drivers are presented.