The science of behavior: Russian way
A new scientific subject – behavioral science – has been developed by Russian scientists as an answer to logical demands of human organism cognition: different from psychology of consciousness, on the one hand, and from neuro-phisiology, on the other. Categorical apparatus was worked out by I. Sechenov, I. Pavlov, G. Bekhterev, L. Vygotsky, A. Ukhtomsky: inhibition, conditional reflex, reinforcement, signal, self-regulation, dominanta, orienting reflex, signal systems correlation, etc. These notions reflect basic vital activity projected to phisiological picture of organism and to psychological one as well.
The peculiarities of child and adolescent personal attitude towards nature
Dynamic and structural changes in child and adolescent personal attitude towards nature were experimentally investigated. It is shown that its ontogenetic development is of irregular and heterochronous character. Some age-specific features of attitude towards nature are demonstrated.
Schoolchildren's perception of human image in paintings and drawings
The features of arts perception development in children 8 – 9 to 13 – 14 years of age were longitudinally investigated. It is shown that special educative conditions lead to adequate perception of human image in paintings and drawings: junior children comprehend actions of a personage and senior children – the peculiarities of character and mood. Incomprehension is often due to incorrect interpretation of certain details and social stereotypes of art perception and does not possess age-specific characteristics.
Evaluation of educator's ability for decentration
Pedagogical consciousness of kindergarten educators is analyzed. It is shown that professional consciousness is not free of inadequate and stereotype views on specific features of child's psychic organization. It is based on adult egocentrism phenomenon demonstrated and described by the author. It is stated that educator's centration on adult position, inability to accept child's standpoint, correctly interpret child's words and actions is logical consequence of traditional (educative-disciplining) model. The transition to modern person-centered model is impossible without radical changes in educators' professional consciousness. Possible means to it are described.
Psychological consulting of students:
Problems and special features
The author analyses questions asked and problems discussed during psychological consultation of the students. Some advice in dealing with these is offered.
Psychological aspects of Chechnya affair elucidation in TV programmes
T.L. Alavidze, K.V. Antonyuk, A.A. Vil'danova
Interpretation of Chechnya affair and its participants in informative TV programs is discussed. Analyzing psychological mechanisms of audience's perception of TV-formed picture of Chechnya crisis the authors offer their prognosis of public opinion changes.
Reaction time and intelligence:
Why are they correlating? (Concerning brain discriminative ability)
Inner psychologo-phisiological causes of correlation between reaction time and intelligence are discussed. The author argues that one of fundamental indices of intelligence is brain discriminative ability: if psychic contents is syncretic and structures are global-diffuse, then high levels of synthesis, generalization and abstraction are impossible. The notion that reaction time and stimulus identification time form good laboratory model for the exposure of brain discriminative ability, that is for the ability to distinguish and differentiate sensory, perceptive and conceptual contents is substantiated. A hypothesis of neuro-phisiological mechanism of brain discriminative ability, depending on culture, education and environment in general, and its morphological basis, independent of these, is offered.
Moscow Psychological society (1885-1992)
Modern concept of aims and methods of psychology (an address on the first Moscow Psychological society meeting, March 14, 1$85)
The publications in commemoration of 110-th anniversary of Moscow Psychological society are presented: A.N. Zhdan analyses its activity. Extracts from Society's first chairman M.M. Troitsky's address are given.
Imitative behavior in early ontogenesis:
An experience of a study
A new method of imitative behavior in infants (5,9 – 14,9 months old) study is offered. It was tried on 178 children. It is shown that mimic imitation loses its leading part after 6 months of age. Some children (17%) do not demonstrate imitative behavior.
The article depicts significant for psychology notions by K. Popper: the problems of thinking, personal contacts, social conditionality of psyche, development, activity, determinism and indeterminism, etc.