Mental self-regulation in voluntary activity (structural-functional aspect)
The problem of mental self-regulation in voluntary activity is considered to be one of the most fundamental in psychological investigation of subject existence. The notion of conscious self-regulation as whole demands the knowledge of its principal structure as regulative informative process. Its generalized model is offered.
Psychological-pedagogical monitoring in learning activity
V.R.Repkin, G.V. Repkina, E.V.Zaika
The system of monitoring is offered as one of the perspectives for the development of theory and practice in learning activity. Its content, goals, means of implementation and perspectives are discussed. Some examples of monitoring practical use are presented.
Group training of senior schoolchildren for their social adaptation
A.L. Venger, Yu.M.Desyatnikova
The experience of psychological training of senior schoolchildren-emigrants from the former USSR to Israel is described. The authors have worked out and tested the model of psychological correction, combining group activity training and adolescent club contacts.
Undesirable pregnancy of sexual violence victims (psychological-psychiatric aspect)
V.I.Brutman, S.N.Enikolopov, M.S.Radionova
Social-psychological reasons and psychological-psychiatric results of undesirable child bearing by sexual violence victims are analysed. The authors mark out specific personal traits leading to their victimity. Motives for the bearing of undesirable child, personal crisis formation features and the motives for the abandoning of a newborn enfant are described. The role of different kinds of psychological defence and interrelations with parental family are underlined. The strategies for social-psychological preventive measures in victims' rehabilitation are discussed.
Concerning play training of schoolchildren for the development of thinking, imagination and memory
E.V.Zaika, N.P.Nazarova, I.A.Marenich
Several articles by E.V.Zaika on play training of thinking, memory, imagination, inner plan of actions have been already published by «Voprosy Psychologii». Now some recommendations on practical organization of such a training are offered.
On the comprehension of mini-text: The importance of proverbs
The article presents one of the aspects in «School textbook» programme aiming to the formation of a reader capable of successful conversational and written communication. The author analyses psychological features of the comprehension by schoolchildren of minimal literature text — a proverb. The methods of comprehension investigating and the system of forming such skills are described.
Cultural-historical development of mental processes and the theory of stage formation of mental acts
The author argues the possibility of P.Gal'perin's theory of stage formation of mental acts implementation to cultural-historical development of mental processes. It is illustrated by the example of counting process and purpose-forming. It is shown that in culturegenesis as well as in ontogenesis it is possible to trace the «rolling-up» of previously extensive object-activity forms, then their transformation into verbal correlates and finally into inner mental processes.
Reflexive-innovative approach to management and training of management personnel for business structures
There are several traditional methods of management — authoritarian, democratic, connivative. A new one — reflexive-humanistic is offered. Working out and approbation of such an original developmental educative program for management personnel training is described.
Psychological aspects of school ecology education
The author shows psychological mechanisms of forming responsible attitude towards nature. The ways of usage of these mechanisms by school teachers are described.
Out of Russian psychotherapy history: N.E.Osipov in Moscow and Prague
The beginnings of Russian psychotherapy and the role played in it by N.E.Osipov are outlined. On N.E.Osipov's example it is shown that Russian psychotherapy was characterized by marked clinical approach and was devoid of dogmatism thanks to humanistic traditions of Korsakov psychiatric school which were inherited by it. The perception and comprehension of psychoanalysis by the first Russian psychotherapeutists is described.
Out of reminiscences about G.I.Chelpanov
Some recollections by G.O.Gordon — pedagogue, philosopher, linguist — about the first years of Psychological Institute and Russian psychologists and philosophers of the time are presented.
Choice as activity: Its individual determinants and possibilities of training
The study deals with a problem of choice. Preliminary analysis allows the authors to distinguish at least three kinds of choice processes: (1) Single choice with both alternatives and criteria given to the subject; (2) Sense-based choice with the alternatives already given and criteria of choice still to be construed, and (3) Personal or existentional choice with both alternatives and criteria to be construed in the process. Two experiments performed by the authors provide some data on personality variables connected to the ability to make more meaningful and substantiated choices. The authors succeeded in elaboration of a training procedure based on the understanding of choice process in terms of internal activity that proved to be efficient in improving the main parameters of sense-based choice.
Intelligence: The new look
Recent work on the biological basis of intelligence has forced psychologists to reconsider the definition and conceptualization of «intelligence» widely accepted during the last fifty years. Work with the electroencephalograph, the averaged evoked potential, reaction time and other largely physiological and non-cognitive measures has resurrected the conception of intelligence which originated with Sir Francis Galton, and has posed great problems for the conceptualization beginning with A.Binet, and still widely accepted.
A road to holisticity: Human-centered therapy based on expressive arts
The translation of a chapter from «Creative connection», a new book by well-known American psychotherapeutist N.Rogers is presented.