" " (1980-1997 .).  ... 

108

 

 

Psychological service in health care: present state and perspectives

V. V. Gul'dan, Yu. V. Nazarenko

The analysis of medical-psychological service's concept and its present state are presented. Priorities of the USSR medical-psychological service are outlined including care for the children and adolescents, out-of-hospital care, rehabilitation, urgent care.

Emotional-image-bearing cognition in human development

R. M. Nemensky

The equality of two sides of thinking rational-logical (theoretic) and emotional-image-bearing (artistic) in human development is stated. It is necessary to regain their harmony in educational system. The forms' of cognition and its object's interconnections are analysed. Constructive, graphic and decorative ways of artistic-image-bearing cognition are considered in detail. The art is stated to be the irreplaceable form of self-consciousness and self-organization of human collective in absence of which human society is impossible.

Concerning the genesis of thinking development in preschoolers

A. A. Kataeva, T. I. Obuhova, E. A. Strebeleva

Comparative study of normal, deaf and mentally retarded children shows that visual-active thinking evolves when certain level _of perception, object activity and speech, leading to substitution function emergence is obtained. Visual-active thinking though developing early enough is neither initial, nor the most primitive form of thinking. It appears on the basis of visual-image-bearing thinking and of elements of logical one. So, all the fundamental forms of thinking interrelation is confirmed.

The experience of mental actions diagnostics in senior preschoolers

I. G. Zhitomirskaya, N. A. Oreshkina

The problem of preschoolers' intellectual diagnostics is considered. The attempt is made to clarify the role of dialectical mental acts in child's intellectual development. Experimental study of image-bearing form of thinking was performed using L. A. Venger's, N. E. Veraksa's, D. Roeter's, R. Pintner's methods. As many as possible of the peculiarities of 6-years-old children's intellectual development were taken into consideration. Experimental data show that dialectical mental acts comprise independent units of thinking's analysis, so even on the level of image-bearing reflection dialectical thinking plays the role of independent intellectual activity form.

The peculiarities of "important other" perception in senior schoolchildren

I. G. Dubov, L. M. Smirnov

Experimental data on structure of "important other" perception in senior schoolchildren include a compact list of semantically equidistant descriptors of importance of the other. The schoolchildren used the list for the evaluation of personal characteristics of 10 the most important for them persons. In order to obtain reliable results the evaluations were anonymous and the experimenters did not know the identity of described persons (instruction demanded of a participant to evaluate persons of both sexes and different age, provoking sympathy and antipathy as well). Four factors characteristic for the evaluation (emotional attractiveness, business abilities, extraordinary looks, mysteriousness) were marked out. Some of them can divide, bearing positive and negative values.

 

109

 

Eugenics

L. S. Milovanova

Historic, theoretic and genetic sides of eugenics are considered. Its development results in the possibility to manipulate human genes for medical and biological-technological purposes. Eugenics in the USSR in the past was made the target of rough ideologization and suffered much damage. As a result genetics' and eugenics' development was delayed for many years. The data of experimental and statistic studies of human intellect genetics are presented.

Reason and purpose approaches in personality theories' development

V. A. Bogdanov

Two traditions in scientific cognition (known in psychology as "personality traits paradigm" and situative approach) are analysed. The peculiarities and advantages of them both can be combined in systemological concept of behavior. Russian writers' (whose education included natural sciences and orthodox-humanitarian ones) experience testifies to the necessity and good perspectives of such a synthesis.

Individual activity style research

V. A. Tolochek

Individual activity style research in Soviet psychology is reviewed. Its stages and characteristics are marked out. The shortcomings of existing individual activity style paradigm (statelyness, retrospectivity, psychocentrism) are stated and their overcoming by object-deterministic approach proposed. The conditiality of individual activity style by physical environment factors, brain structures and objective laws of professional activity is noted. Objective determination of individual activity style and the study of correlation of physical laws and their psychic reflections and the latter's transformation into artificial systems (language, music, ets.) are discussed.

Some considerations on "theological psychology"

M. V. Rozin

 

"...To return fathers' hearts to their children"

B. V. Nichiporov

 

A psychotherapist or a priest (concerning the correlation of theist and humanistic paradigms in personal care)

Yu. A. Mislavsky

The psychologists and Russian Orthodox Church priests took part in a discussion on human "I" nature, freedom, creativity and benevolence, organized by Humanistic Psychology Association. Their points of view were similar in some aspects and differed in other.

The study of motor memory

V. I. Goncharov

"Motor memory" term is used for a long time, so its meaning obtained broad interpretation. It is applied to all the types of memory concerned with the carrying-out of the movements, their perception and memorizing. The scheme of modal-unspecific memory of movements is offered. The results of correlation analysis of motor memory properties (the volume and speed of movements' memorizing, their consequence) are presented.

Colour attitudes test in family psychodiagnostics

O. S. Sermyagina, A. M. Etkind

The possibilities of colour attitudes test in family psychodiagnostics were studied. The test was used on sample comprised of parents having neurotic children and on a control one (parents of healthy children). Systematic differences between the samples in parents' self-perception and perception of each other were shown.

 

110

 

Adaptive method of professional interests' and dispositions' evaluation

V. N. Mashkov

The necessity of adaptive method of professional interests' and dispositions' evaluation for vocational orientation of senior schoolchildren is substantiated. Such a method is described and its reliability and validity shown.

The main aspects of leadership studies

S. A. Alifanov

The main theoretical concepts' (attribution theory, social-cognitive approach, system theory, interactivity approach) influence on new theoretical models of leadership is analysed. The experimental data concerning these models' validisation are described. The most important achievements and difficulties in the field of leadership research are outlined.