Ponomarenko V. A.
Real education can be achieved by overcoming of State's monopoly to be in charge of person's consciousness, not owned by the State. Its philosophy is complicated and clear: teaching is not a profession but vocation, not work but mission. School's resultativeness manifests itself not in the evaluation of human potential for absorbtion of knowledge but in society's culture, humanization of labour and high level of spiritual life.
Worlds of consciousness and its structure
Zinchenko V. P.
The article is dedicated to the memory of outstanding philosopher M. K. Mamardashvili. The author has had the privilege to cooperate with him in consciousness problems' investigation. Uncomplicated enough structure of consciousness is proposed comprising four components: meaning and sense (the first level), biodynamic and sensoric matter (the second level). Some properties and interactions of these components (possibility of observation, mutual transformations, transmutations, phase transitions) are described. The possibility of consciousness flow structuring in connection with the new tide of anticonstructivism is discussed. Proposed structure can be differentiated and possesses of the potential for the explanation of the real consciousness phenomena variety.
Age category in psychology and pedagogy of development
Slobodchikov V. I.
The article deals with categorial analysis of age problem in psychology and pedagogy of development in the framework of European humanitarian culture. The analysis serves as a basis for normative matrix of age for all the person's life span. The age as such is interpreted as an unit for designing of developing education and self-education systems.
Role of preschoolers' joint work in the development of cognitive activity
Kotyrlo V. K., Dutkevich T. V.
The transition from curiosity to cognitive activity helps children to make the first steps to inquisitiveness and develops cognitive activity as means of various play and practical problems' solution. Role of joint activity in development of preschoolers' cognitive activity is far from having single meaning. It depends on qualitative peculiarities of group interaction and is determined by the goals set and results obtained. When cognitive problem is the object of interaction, mutual exchange and mutual enrichment take place. If the object of interaction is the choice of solution, the group does not influence cognitive sphere of its participants.
Personal peculiarities, behavior styles and professional self-identification types in future teachers
Zakharova L. N.
The results of unexperienced teachers' behavior study during professional adaptation are presented. It is shown that one of the basic factors destabilizing activity and provoking ineffective forms of behavior is the discrepancy between the motivation when planning activity and real motivation when realizing the plan. In subjectively complicated situations considerable part of examinees possessing domineering motives of personal self-assertion undergoes (not taken into consideration) change from pragmatically motivated activity to personally motivated one. This process is mediated by some individual motivational and emotional characteristics. Different behavior styles in complicated pedagogical situations connected to different personal peculiarities are presented.
Scenario approach to forming experiment's organization
Samoukina N. V.
It is shown that practical psychological-pedagogical activity and forming experiment possess their own specificity and need special organization
different from traditional one. Forming influence and research proper must be separated as well as their personification: there have to be an experimenter (or experiment's organizer) and a researcher. They should cooperate and communicate. The forming experiment then has its own scenario, definite stages of realization and a programme.
Psychological analysis of criterion task
Gorbachiova Ye. I.
The notion of criterion task belongs to psychological diagnostics, forming and developing the new direction-criterion-oriented testing. The present article deals with means and ways of criterion task psychological analysis. The methods of solving learning problems corresponding to developmental logics and concrete-historic content of thinking in specific subject matter are considered. Research in the field of psychological analysis of criterion task should lead to the construction of scientifically based picture of cognitive development in philo- and ontogenesis.
Student's subjective experience and methods of psychological education
Levchenko E. V.
Psychological education is traditionally oriented toward didactic problems: content, forms and methods of education. The author proposes to consider the methods of psychological education as a part of psychological knowledge. The problems of psychology of teaching and learning rather than teaching and learning problems themselves must be paid attention, especially the problem of the subject's of learning activity psychology (when learning some psychological discipline). Empirical data show that students starting the studies of psychology have expectations conditioning their comprehension of psychological theories.
How to assist the child to endure grief
Andreeva A. D.
The problem of rendering help to a child who lost near relation is analysed. The characteristics of child's endurance of grief are considered as well as concrete ways of influencing the child whose relative is incurable or suddenly died. Different aspects of assistance to widowed parent and child's perception of sibling's death are discussed. Concrete methods of interaction with enduring greif child necessary for parents and teachers are presented.
Personal sets and delinquiency
Ivanchenko V. N., Asmolov A. G., Enikolopov S. N.
The authors propose to reconsider the notion of "antisocial set" filling it with psychological content. Otherwise it does not reflect person's true motives. The latter fact can be clearly seen in the studies of delinquents' aggressive behaviour.
The criteria for different level foundations of individuality's discernment
Belous V. V.
The author substantiates the unsoundness of reductionist concepts of individuality reducing the variety of subsystems of the "person-society" system to the only determinant: definite correlation. Using the principle of multi-multifactorial correlation between higher and lower phenomena of reality, presented by V. S. Merlin, the author states and resolves the problem of different level properties of individuality discernment-by diagnostical, functional and processual methods.
Schoolchildren's musical perception psychology
Tarasov G. S.
The problem of schoolchildren's musical perception is discussed in connection to D. B. Kabalevskiy's programme for secondary school "Music". The peculiarities of child's musical perception and two types of musical hearing are shown. Some recommendations for musical teacher are given.
Julian Ochorowics's scientific contribution to psychology
Moroz A. V., Poltashevskaya E. S.
The paper presents an outstanding Ukrainian an Polish scientist, full member of the Russian Psychological Society, initiator of the 1-st International Psychological Congress and the International Institute of Psychology, professor extraordinarius of the Lvov University, Ivan Franko' teacher Julian Ochorowicz's scientific research. J. Ochorowicz greatly contributed to the development of psychological science and its aspects as well as to medicine and technology. His hypnotism theory is described. J. Ochorowicz's inheritance should be introduced to Soviet psychologists.
The Munich longitudinal study of giftedness
Heller K. A., Perleth C., Sierwald W.
Giftedness defined as individual cognitive, motivational and social potential to perform at a high level in one or more of the following areas: intelligence, creativity, social competence, artistic ability, psychomotor ability was studied on a large national (Germany) sample with six age cohorts. The results of tests are presented. The tasks of applied developmental psychology in order to nurture young talents are discussed.
Psychological-pedagogical problems of computer diagnostics of comprehension
Naumov N. D.
The results of experimental study of positive and negative emotions' correlation are presented. The emotions are considered as personal characteristic and as reaction on positively colored situation. As psychophisiologic characteristic electric-skin resistance was used. Two polar groups were marked out: emotionnally positive and emotionnally negative. The majority of examinees belonged to intermediate group. Introspective and projective methods were shown to be the most informative.
The experience of complex study of education differentiation
Golubeva E. A., Izumova S. A., Kabardov M. K., Kadyrov B. R., Matova M. A., Pechenkov V. V., Suvorova V. V., Tikhomirova I. V., Turovskaya Z. G., Usim E. D.
The psychological-pedagogical problem of computer usage as a means for diagnostics of child's intellectual development is discussed. The characteristics of exercising analysis by 12- 13 years old schoolchildren were studied and psychological requirements to the methods of this action study formulated. The usage of a computer in such a diagnostics is substantiated. The effectiveness of computer usage in diagnostics of comprehension is due to the possibility of exteriorization of analysis (planning and reflection as well). The process can be fixed to enable the participants to realize it.
Experimental study of positive and negative emotions
Kepalaite A. P., Suvorova V. V.
The results of three-level (phisiological, psychological, and behavioristic) experimental study of adolescents' (12-13 years olds) individual-typological characteristics are presented. Close relationship between abilities and success of learning activity and nervous system typological properties was found. Less pronounced correlations exist between typological properties and inclinations and general orientation of personality. Specialized classes are formed on inclination basis really. Complex diagnostics of abilities makes it possible to activate students' potential in differentiated education.
The development of dialogue in thinking problem solving by schoolchildren
Belova E. S.
A new approach to the research of dialogue's role in cognitive structure is presented. It is based on analysis of the dialogue components directed to interaction with another person. Three age stages (8-9, 12-13 and 15-16 years olds) in dialogue interaction were experimentally studied. It is shown that the development of dialogue thinking structure is characterised by qualitative changes having two general tendencies: ability to dialogue interaction with a partner and the development of inner dialogue.
Device for attention and memory study
Kuznetsov A. I., Korenevskiy N. A.
The description of a device for complex attention and operative memory study is presented. It is illustrated by concrete psychological methods' implementation, possibilities of their technical realization are shown. Some areas of the device's possible usage are suggested.
The research in children's economic conceptions
Shchedrina E. V.
Foreign literature concerning children's economic conceptions is reviewed.. The author marks out four variables influencing economic notions: child's age, gender, social-economical status of child's parents, national-cultural characteristics. The methods of economic conceptions' study are described and some recommendations for parents given.