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Concerning renovated Psychological department of Academy of Pedagogical Sciences of the USSR

E. A. Klimov

One of well-known Soviet psychologists discusses the role and objectives of renovated Psychological department of APS of the USSR.

 

An experience in foundation of humanistic psychology

R. S. Bratus'

Some foundations of a new direction in Soviet psychology are shown resulting from such concepts as spiritual wealth, meaning of life, faith and so on. Detailed analysis of this direction's perspectives and its interaction with other approaches such as humanistic and theological ones is offered. New notions of horizontal and vertical planes of consciousness' development, specificity of "personal space", "utmost goals" criteria for bringing up and correction of personality are presented.

 

Psychological aspects of child's bringing up in children's homes and orphanages

L. N. Galiguzova, S. Yu. Meshcheryakova, L. M. Tsaregorodtseva

The results of longitude comparative psychological study of children brought up in families and in boarding-house-type institutions, showing considerable deviations in psychic development for the latter, are presented. These deviations are found in all the main spheres of psychic development cognitive, emotional, volitional, personal, communicative. The study shows that deviations accumulate and are not compensated for in the process of reaching maturity. The reason for this lies in inadequate for each age form of child's communication with an adult, barrack-like organization of child's life (excluding individual approach to every child as an unique personality). Psychological recommendations for reorganization of child's bringing up in children's homes and orphanages are given.

 

Activity norms and creative activity of personality

G. A. Ball

The importance for psychology of the notion of norm as socially defined base on which individual and group activity is built (or should be built) is analysed. The most important parameters and activity norms' varieties are characterized. The dependence of really influencing subject's behavior and psychics norms on subjects's individual virtues is outlined. Interrelations of normative and creative components in subject's activity and personality's functioning are shown. This interrelation can be used in education. The article is accompanied by A. B. Orlov's review and the author's answer to it.

 

On child's self-dependence

G. A. Tsukerman, N. V. Velizarova

Two sides and two genetic roots of child's self-dependence are marked our: 1) child's ability to do without adult's assistance, connected to mastering of object content, means and ways of action carrying-out, 2) child's ability to be a subject of joint action, connected to child's initiate c emergence in interaction with instructing adult. The method showing dual character of child's action orientation in indeterminate sutuation (and every learning situation is such one) is presented. It is shown experimentally that the children are oriented by task conditions as well as by interaction form (directly or indirectly proposed by an adult). About one half of first-graders (6-7 years eld) demonstrate the ability and inclination to initiative cooperation with an adult. But this ability is suppressed by whole educational system in Soviet school. As a result school is not able to produce learning activity subjects persons with educational self-dependence. Forming of educational system cultivating schoolchildren's learning initiative is a main reserve of school.

 

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Coordination of the whole and the parts as one of the possible imagination's mechanisms

Ye. Ye. Sapogova

Theoretical and experimental study of probable mechanisms of child's imagination is presented. The hypothesis is: child's imagination may be described as an entity of the following mechanisms reproduction (discretion) of the whole image by its part which is followed by disintegration of this whole into its elements, on the basis (if one of which a new entity is created if necessary. An original technique "Puzzle blocks" was used to prove these assumptions. In the course of experiments 4 strategies were observed correlating as it seems with the levels of child's imagination's development. All the strategies have common features due to common mechanism of imagination operations.

 

Mental health protection system in the USA

K. G. Baker

Modern state of mental health protection organization in the USA and brief review of family development theory and family therapy for the last 30 years are described. Some psychological schools' activity, for instance, research in family systems' theory is outlined.

 

Antinarcotics programmes' usage at school

V. V. Guldan, O. L. Romanova, I. V. Ivannykova

One of the well-known american antinarcotics programmes "Your health 2000" can be used in Soviet school. The programme contains three parts: informational, forming self-consciousness and socially desirable behavior in a group, and social-psychological training of conduct in situations provocing narcotics usage. Some results of a section of the programme (for junior schoolchil-dren) approbation are presented.

 

Teacher's and schoolchildren's psychic states interaction during the lesson

A. O. Prohorov

Mechanisms and specificity of interrelations of teacher's and schoolchildren's psychic states are shown. Teacher's psychic state plays the main part in schoolchildren's psychic states' actualization during the lesson. When positive activity and psychophysiological teacher's states prevail, a complex of positive schoolchildren's states is actualized and negative states decrease, and vice versa.

 

Professional's self-determination in problem situation

L. M. Karnozova

Professional's self-determination is intentionally originated and organized during organizational-activity game (OAG) imitating problem situations in different spheres of activity. Methodological principles of psychotechnic study using OAG based on L. S. Vygotsky's cultural-historical theory are discussed and its results are presented. Professional's self-determination is described as a phase sequence: each phase is characterized by specific processes occuring on self-determining pole as well as organizational means predetermining these processes proceeding.

 

System model of school management

Yu. V. Vasil'yev

Some theoretical notions and empirical data on school management improvement are presented.

 

Intellectual plays complex for students' thinking development

E. V. Zaika

15 intellectual plays and the rules for their use in order to develop schoolchildren's and students' thinking are described. Play tasks ensure the development of elementary thinking operations and formation of easy-going and orderly thinking processes. The offered complex is especially useful for unsuccessful students.

 

Psychological influence as a way to improve population's health

R. P. Lovelle

The author tries to define general conception of psychological influence, its resources and levels of social health determination (society, group and individual). The possibility of working out general psychological influences aiming at effectiveness of public health services increase is analysed.

 

Concerning main psychological notions of K. S. Stanislavsky's system

V. I. Kochnev

The results of analysis concerning psychological content of one of the main notions of K. S. Stanislavsky's system the notion of "stage self-sensation" are presented. Physiological side of "stage self-sensation" shows itself in limited level of activation then emotional load increases. Psychologically "stage self-sensation" means optimum

 

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characterological anxiety level due to personal factors concerning negative emotional experiences as well as emotion control factors. There are three groups of different characteristics connected to the possibility of actor's creative self-sensation's organization in specific circumstances of stage activity.

 

Concerning periodization of psychological historeography

O. M. Tutundjian

The author offers four periods of psychological historiography: prewar and war period (ending in 1946); 19601971; 19711980. The author uses as the criteria 1) productivity of historiographical studies notion, 2) the working out of psychological historiography as a theory, 3) the novelty in psychological historiography notions.

 

Concerning V. A. Suhomlinsky's psychological views

M. I. Muhin

V. A. Suhomlinsky, outstanding Soviet pedagogue, died 20 years ago. This article presents not pedagogical views and experience of V. A. Suhomlinsky, but his contribution to psychological research: he considered psychological peculiarities of childern's different age groups, emotional richness of psychological characteristics, different psychological types and their representatives. One of his main interests was the study of contradictions of the process of child's moral self-perfection. V. A. Suhomlinsky's considerable contribution to senior schoolchildren's psychology was his thesis concerning psychological culture as an important part of education.

 

The structure of dynamic determinants of student's intellectual activity

G. A. Aminev, A. R. Kudashev

24 students using dialogue with computer were solving non-verbal tasks of "5" game. The speed of solving stages, speed and standartization of verbal associations' emergence were studied. General intellectual activity speed, standard character of associative answers and variability of strategies were outlined by means of factor analysis. Genera] speed factor includes speed parameters of intellectual activity when dealing with verbal and nonverbal data. Speed aspect of intellectual activity is determined by the rapidity of cognitive structuring of solving algorithms. The results of the study are analized in accordance with R. W. Cattel's and R. J. Stenberg's component theories of intellect.

 

Apparatus method of time perception and "time sense" formation parameters' study

S. N. Sergeev

The device allowing to determine time parameters (duration, tempo, rithm) by supply of single or repeating light or sound sygnal series (differing by frequency) and to register examinee's perception is described. It can be used for rational rithm of movements formation, the making of exercise rithmical model and information about differences in necessary and really achieved time parameters for movement correction.