Veraksa N. E.
It is shown that L. S. Vygotskiy's psychological creative work was determined by the use of dialectical thinking based on the system of dialectical thinking operations (unification, conversion, mediation ets). Dialectical thinking mechanism is considered as operating of contrasts and its functioning in folk, children and scientific creative work is shown.
The notion of psychological defence in Z. Freud's and C. Rodgers' concepts
Zhurbin V. I.
The paper contains critical analysis of psychological defence notions in modern Soviet psychology. The futility of attempts to describe psychological defence as a mechanism immanently characteristic to psyche is shown. Using the comparison of. Z. Freud's and C. Rogers' concepts the author asserts that psychological defence is based on certain deliberate psychotherapeutical practice. It is stated that researcher's activity cannot be excluded out of object description of psychological defence.
Age peculiarities of orientation in social-professional sphere
Sobkin V. S., Gracheva A. M., Nistratov A. A.
Semantic structures of ordinary consciousness exposure, differentiating social and professional spheres in adolescence were investigated. Method of repertoire grating was used as a basic one. The participants estimated the degree of likeness of social stereotypes to corresponding professions. There were three groups of examinees: senior schoolchildren, students of professional schools and adults. Their results (evaluated by factor analysis methods) were different, showing characteristic sides of adolescent self-determination in professional sphere. It models specific properties of consciousness structure responsible for the peculiarities of idealization and social identification in adolescence. Different socialization types influence value aims in social sphere differentiation and in 1-concept formation.
The formation of dialogue notions in junior schoolchildren
Kurganov S. Yu.
Three types of learning discussions corresponding to three forms of notion comprehension are determined: discussions connected to empirical genaralizations mastering; connected to theoretical notions mastering ones; learning dialogues—discussions leading to the formation of dialogue thinking, dialogue notions characteristic for XX century. The necessary "points of growth" for learning activity theory are marked out.
Experimental study of sense and meaning mutual transformations in verbal substrances comprehention
Shalimova D. V.
The method of sentence classification by comparison with the example one was used in order to establish the differences in two types of proverbs' comprehension. One of them describes really impossible actions and so has only the metaphorical meaning, the other one describes possible but senseless actions and has literal as well as metaphorical meaning. The differences in time necessary for comprehention of the proverbs of both types and their dynamics in examinees having worked out the sense criterion of proverb classification are shown.
Planning one's activity by junior schoolchildren
Kondratieva I. I.
One of constructive activity forms—application—was used as an experimental model for 50 children. Concrete age differences in perceptive standard analysis and plan forming based on the foregoing were found as well as connection of plan fulfilment to the opportunity to use previous example. Regulatory abilities became apparent in the growth of aim influence on conditions analysis and of regulating and controlling role of plan in real actions due to age changes.
Some peculiarities of junior schoolchildren's moral regulation of behavior
Sapozhnikova L. S.
The peculiarities of moral regulation of junior schoolchildren's (characterized by different levels of self-consciousness in interaction with peers) behaviour are analysed. The situation varied according to the kind of activity (learning, useful for society, playing); choise of partner in task fulfilment or absense of such a choice; playing the part of a senior (a teacher). The tendencies of moral regulation, its dynamics and the content of regulating actions are discussed. The tendency of behaviour moral regulation is more pronounced when the level of self-consciousness (adequate and critical self-estimation, preferable orientation to self-appraisal, realization of one's differences from another persons) is high. The significance of interaction situation for junior schoolchildren is great. Some pedagogical recommendations are given.
Psycholinguistic characteristics of stammering preschoolers' speech
Belyakova L. I., Matanova V.
The results of comparative study of impressive and expressive speech characteristics in 6-years-old children (stammering and not) are presented. Two forms of stammering—neurotic and neurosis-like—are marked out. The participants were required to retell the text. Neurotic form was associated with the breach of basic elements of speech mechanisms, and neurosis-like one was associated with the breach of inner-speech mechanisms.
School as seen by pupils and teachers
Isaicheva N. D.
The results of a study concerning the reasons of negative pupils' attitude towards school are presented. The special attention is paid to the role of pedagogical collective. The teachers as well as the pupils meet difficulties at school. The main reason of schoolchildren's negative attitude towards school lies in compulsion to learn undesi-red things and impossibility to select desired subjects.
The role of learning-labor activity in forming of schoolchildren's psychological readiness for labor
Faraponova E. A., Ushnev S. V.
The efficacy of psychological-pedagogical methods and psychological mechanisms responsible for successful forming of schoolchildren's readiness for labor is discussed. The system of psychological-pedagogical conditions promoting schoolchildren's labor training and the necessity of unity and interrelation of motivational, intellectual and subject-practical components in it are shown. The forming experiment revealed higher effectiveness of such a training when joint and collective learning-labor and labor activity is organized.
Psychological mechanisms of deformed personality development in teenagers — delinquents
Zaika E. V., Kreydun N. P., Yachina A. S.
The results of complex study of three groups of adolescents (schoolchildren, teenagers registered by militia, teenagers—delinquents) are described. The peculiarities of their attitute towards the future, of social connections and of personal characteristics are shown. The notion of deformed personality development mechanism including the formation and development of "criminogenic complex" (stable set of different qualities determining unlawful behaviour) is worked out.
Attitude to parents and family conflicts in adolescent subculture
Rozin M. V.
One of parent—child connection's aspects— adolescents' (members' of contr-cultural formations) attitude to and conflicts with their parents—is considered. It is shown that there is certain set of norms in adolescent subculture determining "real un-formalists'" interrelations with their parents. Such dramatic romantic results of conflicts as leaving one's home or being put into psychiatric institution heighten one's status among peers. The author's studies show some ways of psychocorrection work with prone to conflicts adolescents.
Methods and means of junior schoolchildren's preparation for intercourse
Shustova L. A.
One of the reasons for school education and upbringing unelficiency lies in teachers' and schoolchildren's inability to productively associate with each other. The author offers special course "Introduction to personal contacts" in order to develop contact skills, ability to evaluate own actions and those of the others, the speech and independent thinking. These aims are attained by active social education means.
Psychological study of personality comprehention stereotypes concerning Afghanistan veterans
Znakov V. V.
The article contains comparative analysis of different population groups (Soviet and American respectively) attitude towards Afghanistan and Vietnam veterans. It is shown that Soviet (contrary to American) not participating in the war citizens consider veterans to be different in personality traits (statistically significant differences arc found concerning such traits as "assessment", "strength", "activity"). Personality comprehention stereotypes are un-homogeneous and psychologically controversive. On one hand the population is hound to see Afghanistan veterans as brave, willful, dependable persons—hardboiled men, and on the other hand, veterans are considered as lonely and suffering the lack of understanding or apathetic and depressed ones.
Perspicacity as a problem of intercourse psychology
Borisova A. A.
Psychological insight is professionally important for those whose occupation belongs to "person-person" system by E. A. Klimov's classification. The main psychological characteristics of a perspicacious person, enabling to have personal contacts with others on the highest level, are determined, using as an example F. M. Dostoevsky's novel "Bratya Karamazovy".
Activity motives choise: theoretical aspects of the problem and its experimental study
Ailamazyan A. M.
The notion of inner activity of a person scientific study is considered. One of elementary situations demanding personal activity is the situation of motive choice. Different approaches to its research are discussed as well as its forms. Experimental study was based on business game, when different types of personal activity were marked out in concrete situation. It is shown that motive orienting realizes itself in activity when the person participating in actions is able to transform and to overcome motivation conflicts.
Musical education and personality development
Tarasov G. S.
The author marks out two possible approaches to musical development: functional and personal. The first of them is oriented to many-sided social and subjective significance of music for a person. The other one demands submission to musical context logics and rejection of chance associations and images. Positive and negative sides of these approaches are discussed and their dialectical assessment is recommended.
Motor memory and memory of movement — are they synonymous?
Ilyin E. P.
The author does not think them synonymous. He considers motor memory to be the recollection of kinestetic feelings and qualifies it as image-bearing kind of memory. The memory of movements is polymodal phenomenon including visual, auditory, tactile, vestibular and motor memory.
The problem of personality: ideology and psychology
There is general ndency of opposition in Soviet psychology of personality, developmental,
social and differential psychology: the notion of individual is considered in contrast to that of personality, personality traits contrast each other, collective is contrary to group, studies of general contrast studies of particular in personality, development of psyche and of personality contradict each other, normal development is opposed to abnormal one, personality development in stable and in unstable environment contrast one another. The issue of dichotomies is imperial conception of personality based on the opposition of "higher—authentic"—"lower—insignificant". This dichotomies is likely to have different-level roots.
The phenomenon of intellectual giftedness
Gilbuh Yu. Z., Garnets O. N., Korobko S. L.
The results of theoretical-methodological and experimental research of the substance and determinants of intellectual giftedness are presented. Its demands on psychodiagnostics and pedagogics are discussed. The article is accompanied by N. S. Leites's review.
We must not simplify the problem
Leites N. S.
The text of G. G. Shpet's and G. I. Chelpanov's memorandum written 70 years ago and concerning ethnopsychological studies is presented.
Studies of attention development in ontogenesis
Rutman E. M.
There is a review of different studies of attention development almost ignored by Soviet researchers. The author states her own hypothesis explaining seemingly controversial results of these studies.