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Estrangement problem in psychology

Abramenkova V. V.

The necessity of the use of estrangement notion in psychology is stressed and its importance for child social psychology is shown. The leading position in this notion's analysis is held by the idea of psychological conversive dual process of identification estrangement. It deals with the most important aspect of culture values and personal senses interiorization: the identification ensures enrichment of child's personal-sense sphere owing to another "I", and estrangement ensures preservation, stability of self.

Soviet Association for humanistic psychology (project of statute)

Humanistic psychology developed as an alternative to tecnocratic and manipulative tendencies in society. It maintains such human values as freedom, creativity, compassion. All its supporters must unite their efforts. In order to achieve the goals of humanistic psychology Soviet Association for humanistic psychology is founded.

New approache to creativity development in preschoolers

Poddyakov N. N.

There are three basical lines in creative studies: (a) a study of child's creative processing of new experience, (b) a study of creative process as a specific form of qualitative transition from known to unknown (search activity), (c) a study of motivation-emotional sphere's peculiarities, depending on and promoting creative development. The new approach combines all the three of them.

The comprehention of violence and humiliation situations by aggressive adolescents

Znakov V. V.

The trends in comprehension of violence situations by juvenile delinquents characterized by heightened aggressiveness are analysed. Four types of adolescent aggressiveness are experimentally found. Those with different types of aggressive behaviour have differences not only in violence and humiliation comprehending but in psychological predisposition to aggression and in subjective inclination to take part in fights. It is shown that juvenile delinquents have distorted notions concerning permissible in human society means of defence of justice, human rights and dignity.

Operative memory and spelling mistakes of pupils

Bulohov V. Ya.

Two groups of five-years-old children were mastering the beginnings of spelling by the same programme, but the matter distribution and lesson organization were different. In the first or them children were tought united speech-thinking activity, where self-regulation was needed, and only after that they did specific sound analysis of words. In the second group there was an opposite order. Children from the first group obtained an orientation in sound speech as a whole, and sound analysis was not a situation skill, but a natural process in auditory language perception. This strategy seems to be more effective and adequate for preschoolers (the second group was less successful).

Teaching to 5-years-old children the beginnings of spoiling

Berezhkovskaya E. L., Varentsova N. S.

Spelling mistakes of the pupils of the 3-d 10-th forms are unevenly distributed along the length of a predicative unit (an elementary sentence). In short predicative units consisting of 2 or 3 words each subsequent graphic word carries more mistakes than each preceding one. In longer elementary sentences besides the peak of mistakes in the last word there can be observed spelling mistake peaks in the middle. The number of the peaks in the middle of a predicative unit consisteng of 414 words depends on its length and the kind of written speech activity (composition, reproduction, dictation). Spelling mistakes get accumulated in such parts of elementary sentence where operative memory, responsible for its composition, experiences the greatest strain. As a result "breakdowns" take place in its activity finding their expression in the peaks of mistakes.

 

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The objectiveness of joint educational activity

Tsukerman G. A.

The teacher's and pupil's mutual understanding during a lesson analysis shows two reasons for illusiveness of comprehension. The first of them is widely known: child's logics is not normative but a teacher disregards child's outlook peculiarities, and addresses his pupil as a "tabula rasa". The second reason lies in child's peculiar perception not only of the content but of the form of interaction with an adult. The substitution of educational task for executive one is due to natural way of child's thinking as well as natural attitude to an adult as a model for imitation and for obedience. So mutual understanding can not be attained by educational content perfection. The form of educational interaction itself must be mastered.

Dynamics of 6-years-old first-graders' mental efficiency in connection to their physical activity

Zaytsev . ., Lytko A. A.

It is found that the increase of 6-years-old first-graders everyday physical activity positively influences their mental efficiency and prevents their wearyness to the end of academic year. There is a drop in mental efficiency of schoolchild-ren towards the middle of academic week regardless of their physical activity. The teachers must take it into account dealing with 6-years-old first-gradrs.

Psychological peculiarities of students' adoption of moral notions during literature lessons

Shakirova G. M.

The peculiarities of adoption of moral knowledge are considered in their connection to formation of moral convictions. They are determined by structural characteristics of knowledge itself and specific forms of its existence in fiction, demanding of the reader extraction of the knowledge from image-emotional substance of a book. The results of such a process in schoolchildren are examined and some defects are mentioned. It is necessary to purposefully govern it. Some psychological recommendations to that lend are given.

Collective form of problem teaching in spelling

Makarova V. I.

The use of problem method on mastering of spelling in primary school is considered. The system of problem tasks is offered, beginning with the simplest ones when the teacher helps the pupils and they wright down their attempts to solve the problems. Such a system allows to include all the pupils in determination of spelling rules. It takes into account one's individual abilities and develops independent thinking. The use of graded spelling tasks enables the teacher to direct mental development of pupils and their spelling skills.

The schoolchildren's activization in professional self-determination

Samoukina N. V.

The notions of activity, activization and subject of activity are analysed. The problem of activization of schoolchildren's professional self-determination is the problem of their upbringing as the subjects of congnitive, educational, working activity and personal contact. The basical characteristics of subject of activity are stated, ^and subject activity forms are described. Using general notion of subject of activity the notion of personal professional self-determination is worked out, the structure of situation of professional self-determination is given. Complex program of active professional orientation for schoolchildren using the principles of active social-psychological influence is proposed. The system of dynamics' diagnostics of schoolchildren's active professional self-determination is described.

The forming of professional convictions in future teachers

Milrud R. P.

Professional convictions of future teachers are considered as sense formations rooted in individual consciousness as a result of ousting of rival personal senses. The phenomenon of sense ambi-valence connected to the process of pedagogical convictions forming is considered as well as psycho-semiotic signs of professionally adequate teacher's convictions. The path of psychological study and correction of these is approved.

Psychological rehabilitation of children victims of railway catastrophe

Masgutova S. K.

The experience of psychological aid to children victims of railway catastrophe is analysed. The psychological method dealing with children's emotional experiences was used in order to achieve psychological rehabilitation of behaviour and personality of a child. Suggestotherapy, empathical listening method by K. Rogers, M. Ratter's and A. Beck's methods of fobia removal, Dennys-sons' psychokinesyologic gymnastics, formation of new sence of life were used. The sequence of them was determined empirically.

Concerning parent child contact

Fridman I. K.

Some characteristics of parent child contact ;ire described and ways of their improvement, found during psychological correction, are proposed. These characteristics are connected to nonverbal intercourse of an adult and a child. Examples of bodily differences between child and adult hampering contacts are given. General peculiarities and individual cases of child's body behaviour are described. Knowledge of parent child contacts enables an adult to learn how to effectively associate with one's child. It is also the basis for psychological correction of such a contact.

 

190

 

Artificial intellect-88 and M. Vertheimer's "Productive thinking" (1945)

Guberman Sh. A.

To ascertain the nature of emotional stability in is necessary to comprehend the subject and dynamics of motives, experiences, cognitive processes in extremal situation. It cannot come to emotional self-regulation, manifestations of will-power or temperament. The study and control of emotional stability have to do with biological, psychological and social spheres of personality. The demonstration of emotional stability as a personal quality and as a psychic state enables one to find the ways of its increase, preservation and implementation in difficult situations.

Concerning the study of emotional stability

Dyachenko M. I., Ponomarenko V. A.

The article is dedicated to the first Russian edition of "Productive thinking" by M. Vertheimer. Modern studies of artificial intellect are considered in their connection with the book's content.

Psychological sense of rationalistic criticism of psychoanalysis

Gilbo E. V.

The author discusses customary for modern science opinion that psycho-analysis as a scientific method is beneath all criticism. The correlation of researcher's personality type and scientific method employedis considered. Four models of cognition characteristic of intellectual, intuitive, sensory and emotional personality types of scientists are marked out. The author concludes that rationalistic criticism of psycho-analysis is due to the offensive of scientists belonging to intellectual type fighting for restriction of subjects and methods of scientific studies to those accessible for them.

Did I. P. Pavlov's concept slow down the development of Soviet behaviouristic sciences

Chuprikova N. I.

The article is an answer to B. I. Kochubey's publications (Voprosy psikhologii, 1989, N 2, N 5). It asserts that the opponent was not able to prove negative role of I. P. Pavlov's concept in Soviet behaviuoristic sciences' development. L. S. Vygotskiy's appreciation of Pavlov's higher nervous activity theory is imparted. Successive connection of Vygotskiy's culture-historical theory and Pavlov's ideas of signalling and conditionality in cortex's activity and of the second signal system is outlined.

G. S. Kostyuk's "Role of heredity, environment and upbringing in psychis development of a child" address' discussion

90 years have passed since G. S. Kostyuk, well-known Ukrainian psychologist and science organizer, was born. His most important works are republished recently in Russian and some of them in Ukrainian. The address mentioned in the title of this paper was published, but not the discussion about it. Meanwhile it is of considerable interest, showing Soviet psychologists overcoming of simplification tendencies and solving methodological problems in psychology even in very complicated times.

Threshold problem and differential psychophysics

Bardin K. V.

The author has doubts as to well-known psycho-physical paradigm maintaining that for every individual principles of sensoric system operation are the same. To counterbalance it the author proposes new psychological branch taking into account individual peculiarities of an observer differential psychophysics. Some experimentally found determinants of individual behaviour of observers are given, and possible solution of threshold problem is proposed in connection with one of them.

Peculiarities of interaction between partners in communication and their reflection in speech

Zachesova I. A., Pavlova N. D.

An aspect of psychological structure of conversational text connected to manifestation of communicative relations is studied. A method of text analysis is proposed enabling one to single out and qualitatively and quantitatively characterize communicative factors of speech. Some regular forms of situation self-appraisal, status, attitude to the partner manifestations are shown by means of notions of dialogue expression, assessment and modality. Experimental data based on scientific discussions' analysis illustrate proposed method.

Psychological characteristics of externality internality degree in a text

Smirnova M. M.

The problem of objectivation of personality in one's activity is considered in connection to methodologicai scheme "subject product of activity". The degree of subject's external internal personal orientation in speech activity product text is studied. The latter, after I: A. Zimnyaya, is interpreted as multilevel formation realizing all the psychological content of speech activity and of the subject. Representation of subject's locus of control is studied on five separate levels of text, which 'make it possible to state text objectivation of externality internality and to define motivation-purpose and sense levels of the text as relevant to speaker's locus of control. As a result new approaches to psychological diagnostics of personality are outlined.

The success of perception in connection with individual peculiarities of listeners

Manerov V. H.

Interrelations between listeners' ability to dustinguish speakers and the emotional state of the latter, on one hand, and individual peculiarities of the examinees, on the other hand, are studied. A new test cognitive orientation, showing a tendency to interpret stimuli (pictures) in geometric, object (inanimate) terms or psychomorphous (animate) ones was worked out and used together with widely known tests. Emotionally unstable, psychomorphously oriented listeners were more successful in distinguishing speakers and their emotional state.

 

191

 

Automation of personality study by MMPI method with verbal diagnosis synthesis

Oganezov A. S., Sumenko O. V.

Program complex for automation of all stages of testing by MMPI method (instructing of examinee, producing of statements, MMPI profile receiving, interpretation of results complete with evaluation of examinee's attitude towards examination, hypothetical psychiatric diagnosis and examinee's personality characteristics) is described. The results are produced in printed form. The records of examinations are kept in data bank so that statistical processing is possible. Proposed program complex sufficiently quickens data processing in mass medical-psychological studies.

The family context: couple satisfaction, parenting style, and speech to young children

Kerig P. K.

Presented data on marital satisfaction, parenting style and conversational behaviour of parents show that qualities of the family environment affect men and women as marital partners, and these marital factors are in turn important mediators of the quality of the relationships between each parent and the child. The conversational behaviour of fathers seems to be sensitive to such variables as parenting style and level of marital satisfaction, while mothers display greater consistency. The relationchip between parental language behaviour and gender-based differentiation of boys and girls and the mediation of this relationship by the variable of marital satisfaction has important implications for the study of child development.

Creativity as a path to self-empowerment

Rogers N.

The definition of creativity and creative process (by means of addition principle) is given. It is shown how creativity can get stiffled and killed in a person, and a method used by K. Rogers to strengthen creativity is described. Author's own method of creativity fostering is proposed. It is based on person centered expressive therapy.