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Activity principle in educational psychology

I. S. Yakimanskaya

The substance and forms of subject's activity in cognition are considered. Its sources, determinants, ways and conditions of its organization are described. Special attention is payed to education's role in the development of school-children's cognitive activity, to making of different educational programs and forms of lessons. Subjective experience of students must be used for free choise of substance, forms and terms of education. It is stressed that student's activity is developed by special organization of education, including not only mastering a subject, but mastering effective ways of learning as well. The latter ensures self-development, self-realization of student's personality in continued education.

Some problems of research in the history of psychology in Russia

A. A. Nikolskaya

There are four the most important problems in the history of psychology research. The first of them is the importance of historical experience analysis for modern scientific development, particularly for application of humanistic principles in education, upbringing and complex study of a child. The second is evaluation principle in psychological-historical research (objectivity, scientific value and so on). The third is the study of concrete issues of Soviet psychology's history. The fourth is the necessity of more international scientific contacts for the researchers in the history of psychology.

The problems of upbringing and psychosomatic paradigm

V. S. Rotenberg

Two main paradigms of psychosomatic diseases emotional stress paradigm and intrapsychic motivation one are compared. It is shown that the condition of refusal from search is in fact the basis of both conceptual models and serves as leading predisposition for psychosomatic diseases' development. Social climate's and upbringing's role in search behaviour or in the refusal from search is discussed. The ratio of neuroses and psychosomatic diseases is discussed also.

Creative giftedness concept

A. M. Matyushkin

Theoretical foundations of creative giftedness concept are formulated. General structure components of creative potential making possible creative development and self-realization are stated. They include: a) leading role of cognitive motivation, b) problem finding and problem solving, c)making original decisions, d) possibilities of solution's and their results' anticipation, e) making of estimation standards leading to highest levels of expression and realization of creative solutions.

Moral behaviour and moral self-consciousness of preschoolers

S. G. Jakobson, G. I. Moreva

The dependance of moral behaviour on the structure and constituents of the self at the age of 67 was studied. Each of 100 children acted in a situation of free moral choice and then evaluated oneself on an 11-point scale. Afterwards the child was requested to imagine that one acted in the opposite way and to evaluate oneself too. The data reveal definite interdependence between the child's behaviour and the interrelationship of self-evaluations in cases of real and imagined opposite behaviour. Modifying the self-image of those who consistently violated the norm had a positive effect both on behaviour and self-evaluations.

The teacher and emotional regulation of schoolchildren's cognitive activity

A. Ya. Chebikin

A complex of specific means designed for purposeful management of schoolchildren's cognitive activity is based on emotional regulation of learning activity concept. Conditions of integration of psychological, didactic and methodological knowledge of studentsfuture teachersunder special learning-professional guidance are discussed.

 

190

 

The teacher's psychic state and the productivity of a lesson

A. O. Prohorov

Teacher's psychic state and its influence concerning productivity of a lesson were studied during periods of different duration: a lesson, one day's working hours, a semester. Positive psychic states were playing leading role in productivity's dynamics, their intensity was decreasing to the end of a year. Positive psychic praexic and creative states were most important in such a dynamics.

Construction of geometrical figures as a means of schoolchildren's cognitive development

K. V. Voskanian

The means of draught construction shows itself in the capacity of cognitive activity's variety, forming theoretical thinking in schoolchildren. Carrying out practical actions with the help of planks, the schoolchildren produced the models of geometrical figures and then they reproduced the results of practical actions in materialized form (as a draught). All this imparts certain trend to demonstration process because the draught serves as a source of geometrical notions (theorem's and problems') emergence. On the basis of making and constructing of two equal traingles with common base the formation of some geometrical notions, theorems and problems took place.

Psychology of perception and organization of learning matter

V. K. Kolobaev

Correct organization of foreign language learning matter plays an important role in its mastering. Presenting of grammar information by stages in order to form simultaneous perception of complicated grammar forms of foreign language is discussed. As a learning unit syntagma is considered. On different stages of learning the size of syntagma grows and reaches natural speech (conversational or written) level. A lot of different tasks and exercises lets student's perception and attention stay active.

The development of child's imagination in Russian traditional folks pedagogics

N. N. Palagina

Russian folks pedagogics was studied in order to evaluate such forms of adultchild interaction that help to promote imagination. The study was based on protocol records of old people's communication with 13-years-old children. It is shown that the adults often use imaginary situations in order to gladden the child and to direct its behaviour. The child's participation is natural and involuntary at first. Then the child performs imaginary actions proposed by the adult: uses one object as if it were another (a ring as a hat or a basin), verbally addresses the object, enacts somebody else, models life situations with a toy. Imaginary actions serve as imagination manifestations on elementary level. Imaginary situations and actions are recommended as a means of a small child upbringing.

Problems of humanization of interpersonal contacts and general trends of their psychological study

A. A. Bodalev

Psychological nature of interpersonal contacts based on humanistic principles is considered. Problems to be solved by scientists are formulated in order to obtain full and comprehensive knowledge on fenomenology, appropriateness and ways of development in a person of readiness and ability to such contacts.

Sources of interest in work: some psychological mechanisms

M. A. Kotik

The theory of "labour humanization" put forward as a counter-theory to taylorism presupposes that via the emotional involvement of a worker into the working process it is possible to considerably enhance his productivity. The authors of this theory when providing their rationale and empirical proofs however are throwing no light on the psychological mechanisms lieing behind the labour humanization. The aim of the present article is to fill this gap to a certain extent. An attempt to explain the mechanisms of workers' emotional involvement into the labour process is put forward on the basis of cybernetic analysis of the development of working activity and elaboration of the theory of reversive activity. Different cybernetic models of different classes of activity have been built on this basis.

Art problems and computer education

V. R. Pilipenko

There is a possibility to use psychological cut of formalisms space in art of XX century in order to design formal and substantial components of computer education. LOGO potential is analysed as that of a language opposing formalization threat. The use of archaetypes of object environment (plansmaps of cities) where general aspects of programming and cultural-historical meanings and senses are realized simultaneously, is substantiated.

 

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Motivationsense connection in human orientation structure

Yu. M. Zabrodin, B. A. Sosnovskiy

The composition of notionsneed, motive (and its functions), object, sense; emotion is analysed. It is shown that modern interpretation of them (in A. N. Leontiev's main scheme traditions) deliberately excluded some subjective (really human, partial, emotional) aspects of studied realitythe personality and its activity. Broader interpretation of actual psychology of motivation problems and motivational phenomena is given. The acthors consider it necessary to systematically study motivation sense manifestations, special structures ("constructs") of human psychics in their proections on personality orientation in particular. Such a study is conducted, for instance, in practical diagnostics and forming of motivational readyness of future teacher for professional activity, it being psychological in fact.

Variations in gifted children's birth rate depending on 11-years Sun activity cycle

E. S. Vinogradov

The correlation between birth rate of talented people and Sun activity is established as a result of analysis of statistical data. The author promotes the hypothesis of mental abilities predispositions' formation in infancy under influence of marked variations of natural radiation and atmospheric pressure. Experimental verification of the hypothesis is considered. The notion of artificial development of human mental predispositions is discussed.

Concerning a problem of individual differences during the alteration of skill

T. F. Bazilevich

The notion of typological syndromes of anticipation as an individual-generalized part of various purposeful activity of a person was used as a base for experimental study. It is shown that individual peculiarities of alteration of skill during cardinal change of functional systems af actions are correlated with positive phase of brain anticipation potentials, registered in actions of different sense. Appropriateness isomorphism characteristic for different levels of individuality is discussed in accordance with evolution-system approach to theoretical reconstruction of integrity of individ and personality in developing activity.

Lateralization types in children and neurophysiological foundation of individual ability to learn

V. D. Eremeeva

Right-handed 27-years-old children after the determination of leading hand in various kinds 01 bimanual activity were divided into 2 groups: with higher level of right-handedness (I) and with lower level of it (II). Correlation analysis of EEG shows that children of two groups have two types of function lateralizationstrict lateralization expressed in left-hemispheric asymmetry in all cases of verbalization of tactile perception of an object (I group), and changing lateralization when the sign of asymmetry changes according to emotional importance of percepted object (II group). The children of II group have higher level of speech thinking, are more active emotionally, have higher ability to learn. The right-handedness increases in preschoolers and decreases in schoolchildren.

Fuctional asymmetry and neurotization level in students working on a computer

E. I. Nikolaeva, N. M. Subbotina

Three groups of students working on a computer for different periods of time were examined. It is shown that those of students who was going to become a programmist and worked on a computer several hours every day, had more marked risk of neurotization than their fellow-students working on a computer 23 hours a week or not working at all. The biggest risk of neurosis was connected with left-side functional asymmetry and ambidextrousness.

Cognitive styles studies: twenty years later

T. V. Kornilova, G. V. Paramey

The changes of construct "cognitive style" in foreign psychology in the sixtiesthe eighties of XX century are considered. Models concerning style typology and including style meazurement in experimental schemes are discussed. Perspectives of development of style regulation notion in Soviet psychology are stated.