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The humanization of education: the problems and the possibilities
A. A. Melik-Pashaev
The conditions of school education resulting in personal development of a forming person are considered. The author's opinion is that modern school is a system of objective knowledge transition and therefore it cannot perform the upbringing of full value. In order to improve the situation it is necessary to repudiate the division of learning matter into different subjects (on the earliest stages of education at least). The most important goal is to develop child's fantasy, moral qualities, ability for dialogic thinking. Then the mastering of culture is a discovery of new spiritual qualities and abilities in oneself.
On the problems of style peculiarities of activity self-regulation
O. A. Konopkin, V. I. Morosanova
It is shown that the most important subjective-personal prerequisites of profession mastering are the individual peculiarities of psychic self-regulation of voluntary activity formed before choosing a vocation. The latter determine the typical for a person style of activity and behaviour regulation. General style phenomenon exists when individual structure and characteristic peculiarities of regulation manifest themselves in different life situations. The individual-typological differences of regulation processes are analysed, their main manifestations and connections with types of personality are shown. The level of style peculiarities accentuation and its functional specificity are considered as the basis of regulation styles' classification. It is concluded that the higher level of regulation function formation and self-regulation processes' harmonization leads to more freedom in vocation choise. When the marked regulation style exists, the importance of assistance in choise of vocation corresponding to interests and inclinations and regulatorial prerequisites as well increases.
The development of theoretical schemes and notion systems in psychology of motivation
A. B. Orlov
Stimulus — reaction scheme and interaction one are considered to be the most important theoretical schemes of behaviour determination in foreign psychology. It is stated that progressive development of motivation theories demands the transition from these schemes to subject — object one, which the theory of object activity is based upon. It is shown that the differentiation of basic theoretical notions of motivation in order to find dynamic, vector and directive determinants of behaviour is one of the most important aspects of such a transition.
The importance of students' individual-personal qualities on different stages of learning process
M. V. Nikeshichev
In order to study in detail individual-personal qualities of future teachers — musicians methodics showing the functional hemispheric symmetry — asymmetry of the brain, lability — inertness of nervous processes and personal peculiarities were used. Specifically musical and personal qualities necessary for piano playing and for psychological-pedagogical activity were studied in particular. Data analysis displayed the correlation between some individual-personal qualities of the students and their preferable music style. The results of of qualitative and quantitative analysis can be used for more precise definition of individual-typological qualities of the students, so that more adequate pedagogical influence can be achieved.
Self-appraisal of professionally significant qualities of future teachers and the conditions of its formation
A. I. Kagalnyak, K. E. Yashchishin
Structural and substantial characteristics of future teachers' self-appraisal and completeness
of reflection by it of their professionally significant qualities are studied. Stimulating such a self-appraisal conditions are stated: 1) formation of a set for consideration of one's individual psychological qualities in order to produce individual activity style, 2) use of collective forms of cognitive activity, role games in order to make more active professional self-consciousness of students, 3) apportionment of self-appraisal as a special purpose.
Individual-psychological characteristics of external students and the success of their learning
V. I. Natarov, A. S. Soloviev
Psychological qualities necessary to external students for successful learning are considered. There are interrelations between learning motivation and professional adaptation. Successful external students as opposed to unsuccessful ones critically estimate their own individual-psychological qualities and strive for self-perfection.
Records of history: How S. L. Rubinstein was fired (continued)
Present publication continues the previous one (Vopr. psihol. 1989. N 4). This part represents verbatim record of philosophical faculty of Moscow university council's meeting, which took place on the 12-th of April, 1949. The council's decision was to dismiss S. L. Rubinstein from the superintendence of psychological department. The first part of the record got lost and only the second one is published. Besides, critical statements concerning professor Z. Ya. Beletskiy's views are omitted though introductory speeches by Sokolov and A. N. Skvortsov containing general positions determining the spirit of the meeting are presented.
V. V. Belous
Experimental data on harmonization of temperament and activity are summarized. The influence of objective activity demands on masking, change and display of temperament is discussed. Temperament affects dynamics, style and effectivity of individual and joint activity and personal contacts. Some problems of research in temperament and activity interaction are stated.
Psychological studies of TV-communications
L. V. Matveeva, N. B. Shkoporov
Informational paradigm of mass media, forming the basis of the most of psychological researches in the field, is critically analysed. The authors offer principally different ecological approach to mass media phenomena study, based upon the change of spectator's status — from the object of influence to the subject of contact. This concept operates with the notions of behaviour, scene of action, emotional atmosphere, cognitive processes. All of them must be studied in subject — subject system of author and spectator.
Role conflict of a working woman
Yu. Ye. Aleshina, Ye. V. Lektorskaya
There are important but insufficiently explored problems in modern psychology — the peculiarities of combination of professional and family roles of a woman and the factors being conducive to the settlement of role conflict. 168 working women were interviewed in accordance with authors special methodics. It is possible to state that life situations of women having slight middling and strong role conflicts are quite different. For the last group it was typical to have been strongly oriented to the family or to the career, to be dependent on different persona matters and on one's associates opinions. Some measures reducing role conflict of a working woman are proposed.
Individual emotional style
L. Ya. Dorfman
There are few researches of emotional sphere of a person concerning its style peculiarities. Most of them are based on personality concept. This article deals with emotional style studies based upon activity concept. The notion of emotional experience as an activity and individual emotional style (IES) concept enables the author to consider IES as a new aspect of emotional style research and of integral individuality theory. The correctness of including IES into integral individuality studues is theoretically justified by the analysis of IES original conditions, its stability and the possibility to mark out its hierarchial levels. Like individual activity style hierarchy, IES contains such levels as intermediate purposes, operations, reactions, having special psychological substance.
Concerning I. P. Pavlov's doctrine role in modern psychology
B. I. Kochubey
I. P. Pavlov's conditioned reflex concept's application in modern science concerning human and animal behaviour is discussed. Science Citation Index and two different selections of articles, published in psychological magazines, are analysed for that purpose. The analysis shows that I. P. Pavlov works' influence on the development of psychology has considerably diminished in recent years as compared to W. James' and Z. Freud's ones. P. G. Kostyuk et al. analysis (1983) of psychological studies' dinamics in USSR for the last 20 years contains the similar data. Only animal behaviour research still is under considerable influence of conditioned reflex theory. Some methological and social aspects of I. P. Pavlov's doctrine's applications are discussed.
Logical analysis and comprehending problem in psychology
L. A. Radzihovskiy
Problems of analysis in psychology are considered in connection with previously published in "Voprosi psihologii" discussion. Two principally different kinds of analysis are marked out (this psychological tradition was neglected in our country for the last years). As applied to lower psychical functions exact analysis is used in accordance with general for all natural sciences precision criteria. "Comprehending" method is applied to higher psychical functions not allowing an accurate single localization. Comprehending itself can be exact or not because of non-formulated intuitive exactness criteria, none the less effective.
The problems of teacher's education substance
N. V. Kopteva
The structure of psychological tex-books for students — future teachers — is considered. It is usually traditional and is based on empirical data. The necessity of such a change of psychological curriculum that it serves as a foundation of theoretical thinking of a teacher is stressed.
The diagnostics to interaction in significant relations
A. A. Kronik, E. A. Kronik
This article continues the description of methodical possibilities given by psychological game "Intrigue" (Vopr. psihol. 1988. N 1. 98-106). The ways of measurement of partners' satisfaction with their relationship are shown. Three general kinds of non-satisfaction (rejection of feelings, intolerance to partner's behaviour, cognitive tension) arising from the non-coordination of real and desired levels of relations are marked out. Classification of disturbances in mutual understanding (on an example of marital relations) is given. Their main varieties are: non-perspicacity, non-sincerety, distrast, myth, ritual lie, unjustified suspiciousness, discord. Humorous potential of the game can be used for correction of relations.
V. F. Odoevskiy's psychological views
V. V. Bolshakova
V. F. Odoevskiy's psychological views corresponded with general psychological scientific progress in the first half of XIX century and were based on native materialistic science achievements (M. V. Lomonosov, A. N. Radishchev, N. I. Novi-kov, V. N. Tatishchev). V. F. Odoevskiy was interested in self-observation, problems of theoretical thinking, ets. He considered the verification of studies' results, and the beginnings of socio-psychological problems' solving. He also paid attention to the correlation of thinking and speech.
Individual space lateralization's influence on perceptive processes' asymmetry
Yu. V. Braginskaya, B. M. Velichkovskyi, P. N. Prudkov
The connection between functional asymmetry of the brain and lateralization of individual space is studied. The new method based on a variant of Stroop effect of examining interference effects in visual reception is presented. The use of unconcor-dance between retinal and individual space coordinates enables the researcher to discern two different mechanisms of functional asymmetry. The machinery of solving left-hemispheric problems is connected to lateralization of receptor structures. The machinery of solving right-hemispheric problems is determined by the differences in representation of left and right halves of individual space.
P. G. Nezhnov, A. M. Medvedev
Theoretical thinking by children studies are continued conforming to concept of learning activity. The authors offer original methodics for exposing of interior connection of theoretical analysis and planning and for objectifying of constructive aspect of analysis act. The experimental results show that planning as an action based on foresight mediates the transition to theoretical analysis from inferior forms of orientation. New methodics shows constructive aspect of analysis clearly enough.
Interactions of personal sets in communication
G. Ya. Shapirshtein
The possibility of simultaneous coexistence of several sets corresponding or opposing each other was proved experimentally. The connections of sets influence the results of activity: when opposing each other sets can eject one another or realize themselves losing integrity.
Interhemispheric asymmetry in creative process in fine arts
G. A. Golitsin, V. S. Kamenskiy, V. M. Petrov
The phenomenon of functional asymmetry of the brain of the representatives of fine arts and its informative manifestations were established. The applied methodics were described in the article of the same authors (Vopr. psihol. 1988. N 5. P. 150—156).
The determination of developmental levels of verbal-logical thinking in schoolchildren
L. I. Peresleni, L. F. Chuprov
The extent of verbal-logical thinking formation is important for the definition of mental developmental level of younger schoolchildren. The authors' methodics contains a short version of the first four verbal subtests formed after R. Antho-wer's principle. There are 5 tasks for being in the know (I test), 10 tasks for classification (II test), 5 tasks for drawing an analogy (III test), and 5 tasks for generalization of notions (IV test). When the first attempt to solve the problem fails, stimulating assistance is offered. The success of problem solving was estimated in points. Four levels of success are considered. It enables one to find the lag in the development of verbal-logical thinking of 6,5 — 10 years old children.
Methodological basis of foreign professional development theories
I. M. Kondakov, A. V. Suharev
This article represents an attempt of comparative analysis of methodological basis of foreign professional development theories in order to improve theoretical and practical aspects of professional counselling in the USSR. Differential-diagnostical and psychoanalitical issues, theory of decision making, theory of professional development and J. Holland's typological approach are discussed. The positive and negative sides of the above mentioned issues are shown. Some of the data are presented in Soviet scientific publications for the first time.