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Individuality and objective and subjective reality

M. S. Kagan, A. M. Etkind

Psychological and interdisciplinary problems of individuality are analysed. There are spatial-temporal, model, intensity, probability, causal-effective and estimative aspects of subjective reality which in itself is the most important level of individuality's existence. Individuality is a system of common to all mankind phenomena, of middle-level joinings (national, sexual, cohort, professional and so on) as well as of unique individual phenomena. Three-level structure of identity is based upon these levels of individual reality.

Psychological training of a lawyer and restructuring of education and society democratization

A. M. Stolyarenko

Lawyer's activity is connected with human psychological problems. Many of judicial authorities shortcomings are due to low psychological competence. Psychological training of a lawyer is often underestimated. Changes in Soviet society its democratization and strengthening of glasnost make radical restructuring of education necessary. The main problem of lawyer's psychological training is social-psychological and professional competence forming. Some ways of such forming and its results are considered.

Formalism in education and non-formal adolescent groups

D. I. Feldstein

Cause and effect of emergence and development of non-formal adolescent groups are analysed. This process depends on objective and subjective factors. Psychological needs of forming person such as self-consolidation, self-realization are at variance with the formalism in educational institution's activity. As a result there are no necessary conditions for individual self-constitution and active social development of adolescents. The peculiarities of non-formal youth formations (their complexity, heterogeneity, tendencies of development) are examined. The ways of application of spontaneously found forms of organizations and socially useful activity are discussed. The psychological conditions and possibilities of restructuring of educational work are shown.

Method problems in developmental and pedagogical psychology

S. D. Maximenko

The notion of method concerning psychology is discussed. The history of different approaches to understanding of this notion is described. It is stated that there is pithy and not chance correlation between psychological theory and corresponding research method.

School education's role in modern life of Northern nationalities of Siberia

U. A. Vinokurova

Ethnopedagogics of Northern nationalities of Siberia and its modern transformation in personal and ethnic community's consciousness are considered from ethnopsychological point of view. The author shows that the substance of traditional education and socialization was based upon the preservation and transfer of ecological experience in order to ensure survival in inclement Northern environment, so the person-nature-microsocial environment system existed. The modern education, however, is based upon micro-environment-person-micro-environment system, and the socio-biological adaptation is ousted by the social one, so the socio-psychological adaptation of a person is not enough for successful modern vital and occupational activity. It is advisable to strengthen ecological and social parts of educational system and to study and use the experience of Northern nationalities in education.

 

189

 

Concerning psychological-pedagogical characteristics of schoolchildren

D. P. Kadyrbaeva, I. L. Engels

The improvement of pedagogical process in modern school demands the individualization of education. It requires teacher's profound knowledge of character and personality of every pupil. Given in the article form method of composition of a student's reference enables the teacher to obtain the maximum of useful data with minimal effort. The forms are filled by standard scheme, are easily read and do not require special psychological training of a teacher. Such a reference shows individual psychological characteristics of a student, enables one to differentiate the schoolchildren by markedness of a given virtue. Besides, it demonstrates teacher's attitude towards a pupil.

School psychological service: structure and experience

L. N. Jrnazian

New model of school psychological help-center is suggested including the main three dimensions of psychotherapeutic intervention: object, aim and method. Particular directions of intervention are specified and illustrated by empirical study of pedagogical values. Autoritarian character of these values is reviewed and correlated with emotional empathic abilities, anxiety level, work values of teachers.

Psychological-pedagogical principles of literature teaching in primary school

G. N. Kudina, Z. N. Novlyanskaya

Psychological-pedagogical principles of literature teaching in primary school as an aesthetic matter are considered. Authors' interpretation of the literary activity is based upon M.M. Bahtin's works. Primary schools object is to teach the children to act as a writer and as a reader, to assist them in mastering the main principles of artistic form. General tasks, methods and necessary organizational conditions enabling school to solve these problems are stated. Authors' notions were realized in experimental education. Its results show that such an education broadens children's literary ideas and makes easier their studies in secondary school.

The determinism principle in S. L. Rubinstein's works

A. V. Broushlinskyi

S. L. Rubinstein, whose centennial is celebrated this year, created an unique philosophical-psychological concept of a person, his activity and psychics, freedom and creativity, cognition and speech, ideality, subjectivity and objectivity. He suggested and systematically worked out activity notion in psychology and then generalized it on the basis of philosophical determinism principle: external causes act through internal conditions. The history of S. L. Rubinstein's development of this most important principle is described in the article. It is shown that A. N. Leontiev's formula "internal through external" is not an alternative to Rubinstein's determinism principle but only one of its aspects.

Records of history: How S. L. Rubinstein was fired

On the 6-th of June, 1989, centennial of S. L. Rubinstein, one of the most eminent Soviet psychologists, whose contribution to modern psychological theories is of fundamental value, is celebrated. Scientific merits of S. L. Rubinstein are now universally recognized. But 40 years ago he was blamed for lack of moral substance and patriotism, and theoretical errors were found in his book "The principles of general psychology". On these grounds he was considered unfit to be the head of the psychological department of Moscow university. Our present publication of documentary data enables our readers to draw independent conclusions on the matter.

Philosophical-psychological problems of educational influence of art

E. P. Krupnick

Structural and functional analysis and apportionment of a unit of inflience process are necessary to solve philosophical-psychological problems of educational influence of art. Extensive dialogic relationship characterized by bipolarity, ambivalence, integrity and dynamics can serve as such an unit. It enables the researcher to consider educational influence of art as an interaction of the object of art and the personality in subject-subject relationship. As a result the person under influence of art is assessed not as an inferior kind of artist but as a personality absorbing art values according to spiritual and social needs of one's cultural environment.

 

190

 

Couple relationships, parenting styles, and the child's development at three

P. A. Cowan, C. P. Cowan

The results of longitudinal research project are presented. 72 married couples were assessed with interviews, observations and battery of question-naires in late pregnancy and followed up when the children were 6, 18, 42 and 66 months old. 24 married childless couples formed control group. It was found that the decline in marital satisfaction after the birth of a first child could be reduced by preventive intervention. The comparison of patterns of new parents and couples not having a baby showed that their level of adaptation at the beginning of the study explained much more of variation in individual and marital adaptation two years later than did the transition to parenthood. It was possible to identify partners and couples at risk for marital distress from their description of themselves and their marriage before they gave birth. There were links between the quality of parents' relationships and the quality of parent-child interaction and the child's developmental status.

Psychotherapy in layman perception and in that of psychotherapists

G. Raynai, V. V. Stolin

The results of experimental study of psychotherapists' self-perception in comparison with students potential clients of psychological consultation perception of psychotherapists are analyzed. Significant differences in psychotherapeutic models in those receiving and in those giving psychological help are stated by means of factor analysis and the use of parameter statistics. Psychotherapists mark out the psychological sides of contact such as cordiality, empathy, authenticity and emotionality. Their clients mark out medical aspects and are expecting to be directed, convinced, suggested, things to be elucidated to them. The, students mastering psychology occupy the intermediate position between two groups. So the client coming to a psychotherapist for help finds that his initial expectations are at variance with real psychotherapist's conduct.

Cross-cultural perspectives in the assessment of individual differences: methodological and conceptual issues

Yu. L. Hanin

Methodological, conceptual and applied aspects of the problem of cross-cultural assessment of individual differences, based on experimental studies and practical work with managers, students, schoolchildren and athletes, are examined. Standard strategy (algorithm) for the development and validation of equivalent forms of any personality and/or social psychological self-evaluation scale or inventory is described. Selective experimental and normative data obtained in several studies during last 15 years are presented to substantiate the validity of the Russian forms of Spielberger's STAI, Eysensk's EPO, McCrosby's PRCA, Nideffer's TAIS, Martens' SCAT and Crowne and Marlowe's SDS. After discussing procedures to construct and apply valid and reliable equivalent forms of various inventories, some important conceptual aspects relevant to the assessment of individual differences in terms of Hanin's "zones of optimal functioning" are examined and practical implications suggested.

Concerning theory and practice in psychology

I. I. Ilyasov, A. N. Orehov

The problem of specificity in forming of quantitative and qualitative theories of psychics is discussed. It is stated that the logic of research is the same for the study of any phenomena natural, social and spiritual. The construction of psychological theories and their implementation in practice does not differ in general from analogous research in natural sciences and sociology. The difficulties in the forming of theories of psychics are due to its extreme complexity and not to cardinal methodological differences between this theory and any other.

Emotional stability during strenuous activity, its psychological apparatus and ways of reinforcement

L. M. Abolin

The determining role of psychological regulations during strenuous activity is studied. The process of self-regulation is uniform and has fixed structure. The emotions do not form separate part of it. They permeate the whole structure, especially some of its components and their connections. The emotions perform the regulation functions such as estimation, inducement, anticipation, generalization, they take part in ensuring autonomy and operativenes of strenuous action. Special program of dealing with faulty components of the process is shown to reinforce emotional stability.

 

191

 

Psychogenetic regularities of individ type reproduction in typological groups

B. I. Tsoukanov

The results of population study on regularities of individ type reproduction in typological groups are given. τ-type of parents and their children was studied on random sample of 50 families. There are three tendencies of type reproduction according to mother's values in continuous spectrum of τ-types. The process of reproduction in four typological groups is intermittent and resembles swing of the pendulum.

The correlation of genetic and environmental influence on movement training in humans

L. P. Sergienko, V. P. Korenevich

The influence of genetic and environmental factors on movement training is discussed. 24 pairs of monozigotic and 26 pairs of dizigotic twins 1117 years old were studied. All of them were trained to do 9 complicated coordination exercises with and without different articles. It is stated that the role of genetic factors is different on different stages of training.

Methodics of meazurement of motor short-term memory

M. A. Kuznetsov, E. V. Zaika

The new methodics of meazurement of components of motor short-term memory volume and precision is presented. The experimental installation and research procedure are discribed. The mean values and disperce indexes of characteristics under study and their interrelations are considered.

Consultative psychology in Slovakia

V. I. Chirkov

The article is based upon author's scientific mission in CSSR. The main trends in psychological consulting in Slovakia are considered. There are concrete examples of consultative work.