" " (1980-1998 .).  ... 

189

 

 

LEVELS OF EXPERIENCE REPRESENTATION, AND METHODS OF PSYCHOLOGICAL HELP

F. Ye. Vasiliuk

Analysis started by the author with theoretical differentiation of levels at which there occurs conscious representation of experience led him to postulation of a set of psychotechnical units. Specificity of the psychotechnical approach consists in the fact that such units are conceived not as a sum of activities of the psychologist and the client, and not as a "S-R" (diagnosed problemexerted influence) block of the consultation exchange, but as a peculiar "microworld", a system of interrelations and interactions which equally incorporates the client and the psychologist.

 

THE PROBLEM OF CONCEPTUAL-METHODOLOGICAL REPRESENTATION OF THE PROCESS OF THINKING

S. Yu. Stepanov

Analysis makes it possible to establish three consecutive types of representation of the innovation process: stage-by-stage, or linear; graph/ flow-charted; structural-hierarchical. All of them implicitly assume that thinking mechanism is essentially monological, which means that thought is a specific entity ever in a process of qualitative modulation corresponding to particular stage, or operation, or level of the thinking process. Methodological use of the dialogical paradigm instead allows one to represent the reflective-innovative thinking (developing under conditions of both individual and group decision-making) as a polyphonic process, and also to suggest some of the analytical instruments to study it.

 

TASKS AND SUBJECT-MATTER OF THE PSYCHOLOGICAL SERVICE AT SCHOOL

I. V. Doubrovina

A conception is outlayed according to which psychological service at school must be designed as a system integrating 3 aspects: scientific, applied, and practical. There can be foreseen 2 lines of its development. The first (or actual) one concerns all questions of the day and primarily those connected with learning difficulties and with deviations in behavior and communication patterns of schoolchildren, and also with a variety of problems which may arise in the educational context; the second (perspective, or long-range) one is aimed at promoting conditions for healthy individualization of every child, for developing in them psychological preparedness for creative life in the society.

 

DEVELOPMENT OF SYNTHETIC READING IN 6-YEAR-OLD CHILDREN

N. S. Starzhinskaya

Syntactical relations between elements in a sentence constitute the subject-matter of the activity of a reader at the synthetic reading stage. In order a pupil could master smooth and intelligent reading he must be first taught to notice grammatical features of words and to understand their role in connecting words. He must also be able to predict how the text he reads will develop and, at the same time, to perform connected reading and perceive meaningful divisions in the sentence. A procedure is suggested which makes it possible for 6-year-olds to master the rudiments of synthetic reading. One of the basic products of its employment is elementary comprehending by children of the communicative-syntactic relations.

 

VISUAL-FIGURATIVE REGULATION IN JOINT PROBLEM-SOLVING

N. I. Polivanova

A method is suggested for diagnostical study of visual-figurative components of the problem-solving process as it occurs in a group of schoolchildren. Some trends in the generation and use of visual-figurative representations which are developed by group members as a means of regulation of joint activity are described, as well as corresponding psychological and operational functions such representations perform.

 

PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL PRE-REQUISITES OF PEDAGOGICAL ABILITIES

N. A. Aminov

A hypothesis is set forth that ability to be an efficient teacher depends on the capacity to withstand the feeling of satiety when working with children, and on the capacity to maintain emotional restraint in communication. Correlations between pedagogical efficiency and neuropsychological properties which constitute the basis of the above capacities established in the study prove the hypothesis.

 

190

 

SCHOOLCHILDRENS MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY OF THE INFORMATION SCIENCE

L. I. Zemtsova, O. Yu. Yermolayev

Psychological-pedagogical analysis of motives behind attitudes of schoolchildren to a new subject "Basics of the information science and computers" has been performed. An attempt is made to represent them as a motivational system and to relate elements of the latter to such socially approved qualities (in the personality of the schoolchild) as industriousness and love for work, collectivism, responsibility, creative attitudes to work, discipline, social activity. A conclusion is made that enhancing motivation for the study of computers can be done not only through improvements in the curriculum and in the subject-matter as such but also through activating corresponding personality traits and values.

 

COMPUTER ANALYSIS OF THINKING MOTIVATION: POSSIBILITIES AND LIMITATIONS

O. N. Arestova, L. N. Babanin, . . Tikhomirov

Specificity and potentialities in the use of computers for the study of motivation for intellectual activities are discussed. A new method of establishing motivation of a subject on the basis of his goal-setting strategies in described. Experimental approbation of the method provided opportunities for better understanding possibilities and limitations of the computerized experiment paradigm in the study of the goal-setting process and of corresponding motives: use of computers in the psychological experiment makes it possible to study both goal-setting and motivation dynamics in the absence of direct external/social control which makes, thus, the psychodiagnostical data more genuine and more individualized.

 

UNDERSTANDING OF A FOREIGN TEXT AS A FUNCTION OF CONDITIONS OF PERCEIVING IT

L. L. Yakovleva

Attention is drawn to the experimentally obtained fact that present-day school methods of teaching foreign languages do not result in development of strong associations between word's semantics and its phonetics and graphics. Some suggestions are offered as to how better transfer between corresponding skills can be achieved through introduction of improved and modified instructional materials and methods.

 

PSYCHOLOGICAL INERTIA OF ACTIONS IN TECHNICAL CREATIVITY OF PUPILS

A. P. Zverik

Contitions instrumental in appearance of inertia of actions, as a psychological phenomenon leading to monotonous perseverance of preceding activities finally fixed in the form of a mental habit, has been experimentally studied. Two levels of technical creativity of pupils can correspondingly be established: before and after the formation of the habit. Resulting changes in the emotionality and personality are described.

 

USE OF SOCIAL-PSYCHOHOLOG1CAL TRAINING IN THE EDUCATIONAL-INSTRUCTIONAL WORK WITH SENIOR SCHOOLCHILDREN

M. N. Grigoriyeva, A. Parktal

Efficient teaching ethical and psychological subjects can be achieved only through equality-based co-operation between the teacher and the pupil, through mutual, reciprocal dialogue where both parties are equally active. Social-psycohological training is a procedure where both requirements can be satisfied. Practical experience of the authors is reported, together with corresponding recommendations, description of programmes and of particular techniques, etc.

 

ON L. S. VYGOTSKYS CULTURAL-HISTORICAL CONCEPTION AND ITS SIGNIFICANCE FOR THE PSYCHOLOGICAL STUDY OF PERSONALITY

L. I. Bozhovitch

In commemoration of 80-th anniversary of L. I. Bozhovitch the magazine publishes her report prepared for Conference "L. S. Vygotsky's creative heritage and contemporary psychology" which took place in December, 1981 after Bozhovitch's death. The report is a brief summary of her studies in the field of personality development and, at the same time, a homage paid to L. S. Vygotsky, her scientific teacher and authority, and a sketch of developments in Soviet psychology since Vygotsky.

 

SOME ASPECTS OF INTUITION AND OF ATTITUDES

E. Geraskov

A possibility is hypothesized to build a general-theoretical model which would unite two relatively independent lines of fundamental research study of intuition and study of attitudes (sets).

 

191

 

PSYCHOSEMANTIC ANALYSIS OF UNDERSTANDING BY THE VIEWER OF WHAT MOTIVATES THE BEHAVIOR OF CHARACTERS IN FILMS

A. M. Gratchiova, A. A. Nistratov, V. F. Petrenko, V. S. Sobkin

A procedure is presented for the study of comprehension by viewers of the motivation behind the behavior of film characters. At the core of the procedure is a list of possible motives (possible causes of the characters' acts) which are to be assessed, and ascribed. Factor-analysis is used in order to establish basic motivational units, to reveal their hierarchical structure which supposedly corresponds to the personality structure of the assessed character. Psychosemantic studies performed with the help of the described procedure can supply data which would essentially supplement the material traditionally used by art critics.

 

ACCURACY OF EMOTION IDENTIFICATION AS A FUNCTION OF LOCALIZATION OF FACIAL EXPRESSIONS

V. A. Barabantschikov, T. N. Malkova

A research has been performed which makes it possible for the authors to determine factors responsible for accurate identification of emotions in photographic faces (1), to classify emotions from the viewpoint of the identification difficulty (2), to specify areas where facial expressions are the most difficult to accurately assess (3). Corresponding data are presented. Results of the study can be of use in a variety of practical tasks requiring visual assessment of mans' emotions (particularly when they are simulated, suppressed, or masked).

 

SIMULATION OF EMOTIONS BY MEANS OF MUSIC

V. I. Petroushin

Some principles of representing emotions by musical means are suggested (two basic parameters of simulation are scale and time). Lists of pieces of music expressing similar emotions are given to illustrate the viability of the suggested approach. Some recommendations are given concerning efficient development of the emotional sphere in pupils.

 

CHANGES WITH AGE AND STABILITY OF INDIVIDUAL MNESTIC CHARACTERISTICS IN SCHOOLCHILDREN

A. I. Fedotchev, S. I. Soboleva

A group of 34 schoolchildren was tested twice: in the beginning (1-st grade) and in the end (10-th grade) of schooling. Subjects' memory for pictures, their electrographic (GSR, EEG, ECG) reactions in a modified "same-different" task, and academic achievements were analysed. In 10-gra-ders significant enhancement of memory and positive changes in heart rate and EEG data were observed as well as progressive growth of inter-correlations between these characteristics. Correlations between the results of initial and repeated testing were significant within the set of characteristics concerning physiological parameters and academic achievements, but not memory. However, those 10-graders who had shown good memory for pictures in the 1-st grade performed persistently better in tasks requiring incidental learning of modality-specific information.

 

DETERMINANTS OF ASYMMETRY IN CREATIVITY: EXPERIENCE OF PERFORMING QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS

G. A Golitsyn, O. N. Danilova, V. S. Kamenskiy, V. M. Petrov

The idea of functional asymmetry of the brain has been used as a starting point in the study of creative works of 20 composers. By means of expert categorizations 11 features have been established which make in possible to identify composers with either left-hemisphere or right-hemisphere orientation. An asymmetry index is suggested to be used for identification of left/right hemisphere composers on the basis of their measures on 7 scales.

 

PROCEDURES, HARD AND SOFTWARE TO BE USED FOR AUTOMATIC PROCESSION OF ELECTROOCULOGRAMS (EOG)

A. V. Polyakov, A. V.Romanov, O. V. Zhernavkov, A. V. Marasanov

Provisions for efficient use of computers in psychological studies of the eye are discussed. A procedure is suggested good for the study of 3 classes of tasks. Stages in automatic (computerized) procession of EOG are described, as well as some necessary pre-computer operations and instruments.

 

PRESENT DAY STATE OF PSYCHOANALYTIC TREATMENT OF CHILDREN

V. M. Sloutskiy

Present-day methods employed for psychoanalytical treatment of mental and nervous disorders in children as well as experimental ways of testing basic psychoanalytical assumptions are described. A conclusion is made that psychoanalysis, as a theoretical system, hardly allows of any empirical testing.