PROBLEMS OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY AND D. B. ELKONIN'S SCIENTIFIC WORK
A. L. Venger, V. I. Slobodchikov, B. O. Elkonin
D. B. Elkonin's theory of child's development is systematically presented; particular attention is given to his general scientific principles, methodology, and basic theoretical views. The phenomenon of childhood appears, as the result of the authors' analysis, as both social-cultural and psychological subject-matter. The first step in the study of the phenomenon consists in the recognition of the necessity to distinguish between the developmental and the historical crises of its existence. Contemporary outlook of the phenomenon, is described as abounding with crises.
PSYCHOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES OF DEVELOPMENT OF INITIAL FORMS OF LEARNING IN PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN
It is stated that shaping of new activities in children proceeds through successive inclusion of basic structural elements (means, goals, motives) of the new activity into an activity that has already been learned, which thus results in appearance of a system of transitive, mixed activities (play-learning, learning-industrial, etc.). The statement is illustrated by particular cases of development in pre-schoolers of initial forms of learning on the basis of play activities.
ON CORRELATION BETWEEN PROPERTIES OF ATTENTION AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENTS IN 2-ND FORM SCHOOLCHILDREN
T. M. Mariutma, T. A. Meshkova, N. V. Gavrish
Span, distribution, and stability of attention were studied in 160 2-nd form schoolchildren. On the basis of integral indices two extreme groups were established. In the "non-attentive" children academic efficiency is more closely related with properties of the voluntary attention (first of all — with distributional properties). In the "attentive" children particular properties of attention are selectively and specifically related with the efficiency in different school subjects. Maturity of the attention properties has been found to be a pre-requisite for appearance of other factors (like the ability for control of the motoric activity) determining high academic achievements.
CONSCIOUS ACCEPTION OF A LEARNING SITUATION BY 6-7-YEARS-OLD CHILDREN
L. S. Loutchanskaya
It has been experimentally shown that a verbal instruction coming from an adult can rather often inhibit a 6-7-years-old child engaged in a activity related 'to the task he fulfills. Corresponingly efficiency of the child is diminished. This effect is to be explained by the attitude of the child: he understands his role as purely executive, and not as a learning one; the instruction therefore is accepted by him uncritically. The rate of conscious acception of instructions increases with age, however even in 7-years-olds it is observed only in 37 % of subjects.
TYPOLOGY OF LEARNING ACTIVITIES OF SENIOR SCHOOLCHILDREN
D. Ð. Baram
Different statistical methods (correlational, factor, and cluster analysis) have been used in order to study the relations between 8 subjective dimensions considered to be pre-requisites of efficient learning activity in the 10-th form school-children. Three higher-level factors are established: volitional, intellectual, and emotional,.,as well as four styles of learning activity — intellectual, intellectual-volitional, emotional, and passive.
ON CORRELATION BETWEEN DEVELOPMENTAL AND FUNCTIONAL STAGES OF INTELLIGENCE
Yu. V. Karpov
The following regularities have been experimentally established by the author proceeding from earlier suggested by him criteria of developmental stages of intelligence in senior schoolchildren: a) correlation between the stage of intellectual development and the degree of maturity of some normative, age-specific cognitive activities, b) correlation between the stage and proceedings of the acquisition by a child of those .activities, c) correlation between a child's "learnability" and the stage of intellectual development he has achieved.
RELATIONS BETWEEN ADOLESCENTS IN A SCHOOL COLLECTIVE
Yu. Ye. Alioshina, A. S. Konovodova
Influence of such factors as peculiarities of shared activity, group norms and values on relations between peers in a class has been studied with the help of a traditional sociometric procedure and an interpersonal attraction questionnaire. Eight VIII-grade classes participated in the study. The classes differed in the degree of the collectivistic maturity (low/high) and in the general orientation (learning/communication) —the latter dichotomy is introduced and substantiated in the paper. The most "favourable" relations have been revealed in classes characterized by the communicative orientation and high level of the collectivistic maturity.
SELF-REGULATION AND THE CREATIVE PERSONALITY
Yu. A. Mislavskiy
A new approach to understanding psychological pre-requisites of the creative personality is presented. Among them — specifically represented and organized relations with other people. Six types of such relations, corresponding to six self-regulation functions, constitute a system. The approach has been experimentally substantiated. It is shown that in adolescent schoolchildren creativity is observed in those cases where the system of self-regulation is composed of rather loosely connected components. Some recommendations are provided as to how to design relations with .a schoolchild in order to promote in him development of creativity.
ORGANIZATION OF INSTRUCTION IN CLASSES EQUIPPED WITH MICRO-COMPUTERS
V. V. Roubtsova, L. Yu. Nevouyeva, N. I. Polivanova, I. V. Rivina, I. M. Oulanovskaya, T. A. Sergeyeva, V. Tsoneva, A. G. Tcherniavskaya
Systems of group instruction are analyzed in the article as organizational units of learning composed of dynamic structural elements including computers. Different requirements to the organization of the process of instruction in such a way as to provide for the most effective use of computers are described in the general context of the problem of elaboration of new instructional technologies.
TRAINING OF THE FACULTY OF OBSERVATION IN TEACHERS
L. A. Regoush
A system of exercises for training of the power of pedagogical observation in future teachers is described. Its main components: exercises in reading expressive facial movements, and exercises in generating reflexive judgements for another person (methodological instructions for each exercise are provided). Some data are given proving that the exercises are really instrumental in developing of the power for observation as a professionally important property.
DIAGNOSTICS AND CORRECTION OF BEHAVIOR IN PROBLEM ADOLESCENTS
N. Yu. Maksimova
"Difficult educability" is defined by the author as poor sensitivity on the part of a child to the positive social experience. In correspondence with main causes of the negative forms of behavior revealed in the author's experimental study 4 groups of problem adolescents are established. Specific recommendations concerning corrective work with members of each group are given.
WORD-PROCESSORS AS MEANS OF TEACHING WRITTEN SPEECH
A. A. Hokoun
A review is provided of different computer's programmes used in Western schools in the process of teaching schoolchildren to master written speech, write and edit compositions, etc. Western experience is discussed with the view to outline psychologically sound procedures of using word-processors in the process of teaching.
STYLE AND PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF ABILITIES: TYPOLOGICAL APPROACH
I. V. Tikhomirova
Achievements in the sphere of general and musical abilities have been found to correlate with the field-independence. Some possible neurophysiological mechanisms explaining this correlation are discussed. It is shown also how blending of the personality, properties of the nervous system, and of the orientation to the social environment result in a variety of traits determining the choice of overt behaviors.
ON SUB-SENSORY AND SENSORIAL-MOTOR ANTICIPATION IN THE PROCESS OF MUSICAL IMPROVIZATION
S. M. Maltsev
At the bottom of the ability to improvise we find a "hearing hand" which in fact is the pianist's individual functional system of anticipatory correlations between the ear and the motorium. Sub-sensory and sensorial-motor processes which develop during improvization are relatively independent, which makes it possible for the auditory-motor anticipation to develop both directly and indirectly (in the first case anticipation is a succession of ideomotor acts determined by the general flow of freely developing auditory images; anticipation directed from the motorium to the ear can either liberate the short-term memory for free development of auditory images or interfere with them due to the presence of previously established musical stereotypes).
CULTURE AND MAN'S MENTAL DEVELOPMENT
V. M. Rozin
A notion of "mental reality" is introduced, which denotes a) relatedness of cognized and experienced events, and b) interaction of such events between themselves. Notions of "mental reality" and of "intentional activity" are assumed to complement each other. Development of mental realities in phylo- and ontogenesis is traced. Possible applications of the notion "mental reality" are shown.
STRUCTURE OF THE IMPULSIVE AND REFLECTIVE STYLES OF ACTIVITY
V. V. Azarov
Experimental study of psychophysiological grounds of impulsivity performed on 43 adult subjects revealed both significant correlation between the sensori-motor and the affective-volitional dimensions of impulsivity and some basic properties of the nervous system, and large dependence of the cognitive dimension on the nature of interaction between the two sygnal systems. It is also shown that depending on convergence/ divergence of a) psychophysiological endowment (temperament basically) and b) developed style of activity there takes place either well expressed accentuation of the style or its weakening (masking). Some details are given on how the process of adaptation goes on in such cases.
DYNAMICS OF THE EMOTIONAL REACTIVITY IN THE COURSE OF LEARNING THE BASICS OF ACTING
V. I. Kotchniev
Results of the reported experiment unequivocally point to the existence of certain regularities in the dynamics of emotional reactivity in the course of training tor acting; it is shown besides that this dynamics in its turn is subject to particular pedagogical demands on successive stages of the training. The data confirm a special place of the emotional reactivity in the structure of the actor's professional abilities.
M. A. Makaroushkina, Ye. V. Aidman, V. I. Ivannikov
Basic trends in experimental and theoretical studies of the problem of will in Western psychology since classical works by N. Ach and till the beginning of the 80-ies are presented in some detail. Conceptualization of the problem of will in the "experimental psychology of will", in K. Lewin's school, in psychotherapeutical theories of W. Franki, R. May, R. Assajioli, and in some contemporary theories of motivation (J. Nuttin) is discussed. Particular attention is given to the problem of persistence: to the history of corresponding studies, their results and methodology.
ON THE PROBLEM OF CREATIVITY
The article continues the discussion of the proper ways of studying creativity started in "VP" N 5, 1986. Here particular attention is given to the definition of creativity, and to its relations with the process of cognition.