SUBJECTIVE SELF-DETERMINATION AS A PSYCHOLOGICAL PROBLEM
M. R. Ginzbourg
Subjective self-determination is related to the sphere of values and meanings; in the author's view it can be described as an active process of determining one's position in relation to the system of values accepted in the society and, on this basis, as a process of looking for the meaning of one's existence. Subjective self-determination mainly takes place in senior adolescence, which makes it possible to find one's place in the society and in the world of vocations. Subjective self-determination helps adolescents to shape their future in two respects — as the meaningful future (projection onto the future of one's own values) and as the temporary future (concrete life plans); the former controls the process of production of meanings, while the latter is responsible for the general regulation of activity.
INFORMATIONAL TEACHING TECHNIQUES FROM THE POINT OF VIEW OF METHODOLOGICAL TASKS PUT FORWARD BY THE REFORM OF THE SCHOOL
V. M. Monakhov
Complex studies performed together with psychologists and physiologists are needed in order to solve methodological problems connected with introduction of informational hardware into the teaching process. Proper use of computers in school requires 1) further improvement of both hardware and software in the direction of better correspondence to classroom situations, and 2) introduction of changes into conventional teaching procedures in order to fully exploit possibilities offered by computers.
PROBLEM OF INTENSIFICATION OF THE PROCESS OF TEACHING RUSSIAN IN THE
S. F. Zhuikov
It has been experimentally established that pupils of primary forms of national schools can master Russian on the basis of preliminary acquired theoretical data. An experimental course of Russian is described, based on principles of developing learning; realization of the course resulted in higher linguistic efficiency as compared with the traditional one.
PSYCHOLOGICAL PECULIARITIES OF COMPUTER-ASSISTED EDUCATIONAL GAMES
The author's approach presented in the paper helps to make more exact the psychological-pedagogical opportunities provided by computer-assisted games used in the instructional process. Particularly the conditions required in order to turn such games into specific educational tools, and to turn the game as such into a specific problem-solving process are considered.
CRITERION-ORIENTED TESTS IN THE DIAGNOSTICS OF MENTAL DEVELOPMENT OF SCHOOLCHILDREN
Problems of design and practical application of criterion-oriented tests in diagnostics of mental development of schoolchildren are considered. Comparative results obtained by means of application of such tests to different subject-matters (Russian, mathematics) are discussed (it is assumed that the tests require actualization of similar sets of mental operations). The tests made it possible to reveal difficulties of particular pupils in mastering concrete mental operations, to understand specific nature of the difficulties, and to suggest individual ways to overcome them.
PHENOMENAL AND RATIONAL PERCEPTION BY PRESCHOOLERS OF RELATIONS BETWEEN OBJECTS
Ye. V. Soubbotskiy
Two types of perception by children of spatial, qualitative, and quantitative relations between objects have been studied: phenomenal (direct) and rational (mediated). It is possible to show experimentally that under particular conditions both types of perception coexist in the behavior
of children — though at different levels: rational perception reveals itself at the level of verbal reasoning, while phenomenal perception — at the level of practical behavior. Conditions are considered when phenomenal skills are suppressed by rational ones, and vice versa.
"AUTHOR’S THINKING" IN YOUNGER SCHOOLCHILDREN MAKING UP A PROBLEM
A. Z. Zak
Younger schoolchildren have been asked in an experiment to solve and make up logical problems. It is shown that mental processes in making up a problem ("author's thinking") go on in a different way as compared with the problem-solving processes ("synthesis through analysis"). Efficiency of the "author's thinking" is measured by the degree of problematicity, originality, and complexity of the made up problems. Dynamics of the "author's thinking" by the above criteria during the study in the elementary school is shown.
PROBLEM SITUATIONS IN THE PSYCHOLOGICAL PREPARATION OF SPECIALISTS IN UNIVERSITIES
A. M. Matiushkin, A. A. Ponoukalin
Problem situations as a specific means of psychological training of students of universities are considered. The following theoretical aspects of using the problem situations are particularly dealt with: the problem situation as a psychological category; structure of the human activity when dealing with a problem situation as an instructional subject-matter. Methods of psychological training based on the present-day understanding of the learning process are given.
EXPERIENCE OF THE REORGANIZATION OF PSYCHOLOGICAL PREPARATION OF TEACHERS
V. P. Morgoun
Reform of the secondary school and restructuring of the high school put into the foreground personality of the teacher. The concept of multidimensional development of personality proceeds from L. S. Vygotsky's, S. L. Rubinstein's and A. N. Leontiev's ideas and includes five invariants: spatial-temporal orientation, need-volitional experience, content, level of acquisition, and form of realization of behavior. The concept constitutes the core of an experimental objective research program "Teacher: school — high school — school" suggested by the author; main principles on which the program is based are given.
PSYCHOLOGY OF THE INSTRUCTIONAL DIALOGUE
S. Yu. Kourganov
The article contains logical, psychological, and pedagogical analysis of the instructional dialogue. Some psychological mechanisms of the dialogue and of the dialogic thinking in schoolchildren are considered on material of lessons in mathematics, nature, and history organized as dialogues. Differences between this and other forms of instruction (problem teaching, "moving from the abstract to the concrete") are discussed.
SPECIFICITY OF PEDAGOGICAL COMMUNICATION WITH ADOLESCENTS
G. S. Abramova
The notion of a general pedagogical position of a teacher is discussed. In the author's view this position is reflected in the style of pedagogical communication of a teacher with his pupils and can be reduced to the moral convictions of the teacher. Different kinds of pedagogical positions are sorted out, as well as corresponding psychological contents and formations. It is shown also how the teacher's position can influence development of particular traits in the personality of his/her pupils.
PSYCHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF RECIPROCAL INFLUENCES BETWEEN SENIOR SCHOOLCHILDREN IN THE PROCESS OF COLLECTIVE WORK
Situations when a pupil breaks a norm of a collective work have been studied. It is established that the co-workers of such a pupil basically control the probability of appearance of a psychological barrier; much more seldom they take care to make him to comprehend the consequences of his act and practically never they force him to determine independently the course of his further behavior. Correlation between the mode of influence on the breaker of the norm and the development of the situation in question is shown and discussed.
PSYCHOLOGICAL CONDITIONS PROMOTING DEVELOPMENT OF VOCATIONAL TECHNICAL SKILLS
A. M. Zaltsman
Psychological mechanisms required by some technical-engineering occupations, and corresponding requirements to the training routines are discussed. It is shown that they demand adequate
development of operational technical thinking which in its turn is based on coexistance of a number of representations of a technical object facilitated by a "levelling-off" mechanism which reduces the impact of unfixed representations; the core of the technical thinking process consists of an image of a normally-functioning-object which provides for conscious fixation and selective procession of only those representations that are needed in order to solve a current problem. In training therefore technical objects must be represented as structured and purposeful systems.
PEDAGOGICAL SCIENCE AND PROSPECTS FOR ITS DEVELOPMENT UNDER CONDITIONS OF RESTRUCTURING OF THE SCHOOL AND SOCIETY
A. A. Bodaliov
Different administrative, scientific-research, and practical institutions responsible for development of the pedagogical science in this country and for the practical implementation of the scientific data are critically analyzed with the view to show their possible role in the general process of restructuring the school and the society. Particular accent is made on the present-day state and possible lines of drastic improvement of the work performed by the Academy of Pedagogical Science and by its affiliated centers and schools.
TOYS AS TOOLS IN THE PSYCHOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT OF A CHILD
V. S. Moukhina
Instrumental role of toys in the psychological development of a child from the stage of infancy till senior school age is described. Some age and sex preferences are shown. Recommendations are given to parents and educators concerning proper choice of toys to be given to children with the view to promote development of required psychological functions.
CONTEMPORARY NOTlON OF MUSICAL ABILITIES
D. K. Kirnarskaya
Main trends in the study of musical abilities are discussed. Proceeding from the fact that musical ear, sense of rhythm, and memory for music do not correlate with efficient musical-creative work, a new approach to the study of musical abilities is suggested. It is based on the necessity to reveal, while using the musical material, the abilities to analyze, synthesize and generalize relations between elements of the so-called musical form. Psychological study of musical abilities therefore requires assimilation of musicological methods.
A SYSTEM MECHANISM OF RECIPROCAL INFLUENCE BETWEEN PROFESSIONAL INTENTIONS AND INTERPERSONAL ATTITUDES OF SENIOR SCHOOLCHILDREN
T. M. Gorbatienko
A new theoretical approach — A. V. Petrovskiy's social-psychological theory of personality and collectives – has been used in order to study systemic interdependences between vocational intentions and personal attitudes of senior schoolchildren. It is shown that mechanisms underlying this interdependence are different in the IX-th and X-th form. Pupils of senior forms can be divided into subgroups in coppespondence with their vocational intentions. A conclusion is made that in senior forms there takes place a hidden process of intragroup vocational orientation.
REMEMBERING OF AN INTENTION AS A SPECIFIC FORM OF MEMORY
L. J. Kvavilashvili
The long ago noticed fact (Z. Freud, K. Lewin) that memory for facts and memory for intentions are two different psychological phenomena has been experimentally tested. The obtained data confirm the present-day concept of memory as a multi-factor structure. No correlation between prospective and retrospective memory has been found.
INTER-HEMISPHERIC ASYMMETRY AND VOLUNTARY REGULATION OF INTELLECTUAL ACTIVITY (TÎ THE PROBLEM OF PSYCHODIAGNOSTICS)
Ye. D. Khomskaya, I. V. Yefimova, Ye. B. Sirotkina
Correlation between the "Laterality profile" (three types: "strong righthandedness", "weak righthandedness", and "mixed") and the ability for voluntary acceleration of intellectual activity has been studied on students of a mechanical-mathematical department. The correlation is best manifested in case of "strong righthandedness", and is the weakest in "mixed" persons. Results confirm the neuropsychological concept of the leading role of the left hemisphere in voluntary regulation of mental functions. Some recommendations are given as to how the data can be applied for psychodiagnostical purposes.
FUNCTIONAL ASYMMETRY AND LOGICAL THINKING IN CASE OF LESIONS IN SUBCORTICAL FORMATIONS OF THE MAN, S BRAIN
T. Sh. Gagoshidze
Different pictures of intellectual activiti are observed in patients following right-side and left-side thalamotomy; besides, the new pattern î activity significantly differs from what had been observed before the operation. The data are interpreted with the view to make more exac functional connections between cortical and subcortical formations of the brain's left and right hemispheres as related to mental perfomance.
A PROCEDURE FOR PSYCHOLOGICAL STUDY OF SPATIAL HEARING
V. V. Kapranov
A device is described designed for the study of man's spatial hearing. Its basic element is an arc (radial distance — 1.5 m) along which a source of sound (a dynamic loudspeaker) mounted on a carriage is being moved. The device significantly increases the accuracy of measuring the thresholds of sound localization; besides it permits a wider range of a subject's activity to be measured. An original method for graphical representation of results is also suggested.
FOREIGN STUDIES OF THE INDIVIDUAL STYLE AND THE PROBLEM OF PERSONALITY APPROACH TO THE STUDY OF ABILITIES
K. V. Sizov
An attempt is made to show the trend in present-day studies of abilities to bring together and synthesize the concept of the individual style of activity and the so-called personality approach. The concept of individual style permits a wider context of looking at the problem since it incorporates perceptual, cognitive, and social factors; also it allows one to study abilities at different structural levels. The new synthesis makes it possible to shed new light on the problem of correlation of the biological and the social im man's abilities.
A STUDY OF PRESCHOOLERS COMMUNICATION WITH THEIR AGE-PEERS
Ye. O. Smirnova, T. V. Gouskova
American studies of communication between age-peers in preschool age are reviewed. Basic assimptions, procedures used, and main results are briefly outlined. Importance of the studies for understanding the process of development of personality in children is stressed.