PROBLEMS OF RESTRUCTURING THE PSYCHOLOGICAL-PEDAGOGICAL PREPARATION OF TEACHERS
A. B. Orlov
Methodological analysis reveals that psychological-pedagogical training of teachers can be significantly improved if the following three requirements are met: 1) rejection of stereotypes of the monosubject pedagogics through organization of the learning process in correspondence with the polysubject pedagogical principles of dialogism, problemization, personalization, and individualization, 2) rejection of the tradition to describe teachers' craftsmanship in terms of technical and psychological-pedagogical knowledge, habits and skills; priority must be given now to the personality and motivation of teachers, which means that attention of trainers has to be shifted from a system of professional instruction to a system of professional education, 3) rejection of passive, informational, monologic procedures of training, and substituting them with active, problemic, dialogical methods of acquisition of pedagogical experience.
SOCIAL-PSYCHOLOGICAL DESIGN IN PEDAGOGICS
Yu. N. Yemelyanov
Proceeding from the capacity of a human being for transsituational learning and from his capacity for construction of interpersonal situations with consequent correlated participation in them (the latter capacity appears within dramatic acting), the author defines principles of a new theoretical-applied approach, which he calls «social-psychological design», and shows its relevance to some problems of the present-day pedagogics.
THREE PRINCIPLES OF NEW PEDAGOGICS
IN THE TEACHING OF MUSICIANS
A provisional description is given of three possible "principles on which a new approach to the training of musicians can be based, they are: 1) the starting point in the teaching process is the personality of a student, and not a musical piece, or a subject to be studied, or the teacher's concerns about his own authority, or the cultural value of music, 2) personality of a student can be developed only through the developing influence of .the personality of his teacher, 3) artistic education must be centered not around acquisition of the semantic-informational content of a musical piece, but around appearance of a subjective, personal attitude to this particular piece of art, to the world, oneself, and others.
G. N. Ionin
An attempt is made to critically review the work of Ye.N. Ilyin, an innovative schoolteacher of literature from Leningrad. The author does not only present Ilyin's pedagogical discoveries and achievements, he also discusses some of his errors, slips, and misconceptions.
IN PLACE OF AN ANSWER TO SCIENTISTS
WHO SUMMARIZE THE EXPERIENCE OF INNOVATORS
The author answers polemically to his reviewer (see preceding article) that the goal of the teaching process in class is primarily common growth of the teacher together with his students, their further personal enrichment and development, while the works of literature they deal with are only specific instruments promoting this growth.
A. N. Kochetkov
The argumentation started above is carried further on with the view to throw some tight on how the preceding positions can be successfully realized, and to establish some grounds which can be shared by the sides in the pedagogical controversy.
Vocational guidance at school can not be based on some permanent requirements of professions to a man, since the technical progress makes the professions obsolete pretty quickly. It is to be expected that future workers may have to change their field of expertise 5-6 times in a lifetime. It is not possible also to rely on stable individual-psychological qualities which are revealed by diagnostic procedures since they change significantly with age, experience, under the influence of new motives, and of life and labour conditions. Therefore more attention must be given to professional desires and intentions of the school-children. Two stages in the appearance of the latter are described; it is shown how psychological and psychophysiological procedures can success
fully complement each other at these stages as means in the process of adequate vocational self-determination.
PSYCHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF THE PROBLEM
OF SATISFACTION WITH A CHOSEN VOCATION
Factors responsible for liking and disliking particular professions are considered. Experimental treatment of corresponding problems within different pedagogical systems is reviewed. «Satisfaction» has been shown to be indifferent to the progress in so-called general subjects. Procedures capable of predicting low satisfaction are given.
MENTAL DEVELOPMENT OF SCHOOLCHILDREN BY MEANS AVAILABLE IN THE PROCESS OF LEARNING
Proceeding from learning abilities and academic achievements of particular schoolchildren the author tried to establish the nearest zone of their development. (The experiment was performed on V-V1 grade pupils; physical material: theory, exercises, problems, models, etc. was used). It has been established that the introduced procedure of presenting material for learning makes it possible to develop in pupils new ways of comprehending and processing the material, which may be regarded as appearance of a new higher psychological function.
CHANGES WITH AGE IN THE PROCESS OF LOOKING
FOR A SOLUTION IN PROBLEM SITUATIONS
Results of an experimental study of looking for a solution in a problem situation by younger schoolchildren (8-9 years old), adolescents (12-13), and senior schoolchildren (15-16) are described. So-called conjecture problems with undefined objects were used; subjects were allowed to ask «yes/no questions;!.. It has been found out that there develops with age a capacity to form a decision on the basis of gradual anticipation of a required solution.
ATTITUDE TO TIME: PSYCHOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF EARLY ALCOHOL-ADDICTION AND OF DEVIANT BEHAVIOR
V. S. Khomic, A. A. Kronic
A comparative analysis has been performed of the psychological time and of the locus of control in well-off senior schoolchildren and in their delinquent age-peers with a history of alcohol-addiction. It has been found out that the youth from the second group are more pessimistic in their life length expectations, see their future life less rich in important events, regard the present as empty and of low value; also their attitude to life is manifestly hedonistic, while they rather poorly control the flow of their life activities. Some dimensions of the subjective picture of the life passage are outlined which can serve as supports in the therapeutic work connected with prevention of early alcoholism and with rehabilitation of young delinquents.
OF DESIGNING THE WORLD OF OBJECTS
V. P. Pilipenko
Modern approaches to the problem of design are analyzed from the point of view of their psychological relevance. Trends in design (functionalism, ecological design) are correlated with trends in philosophy and psychology. Role of perceptual symbols and stereotypes is discussed, as well as influence of modern technological developments on our perception of functional and esthetic properties of the environment.
PRESENT-DAY ISSUES IN THE PSYCHOLOGY OF PHYSICAL TRAINING
I. P. Volkov
The author analyses the state, problems and perspectives in the development of psychology of physical training understood as an interdisciplinary field oriented at increasing the popularity of physical culture and sports, and at further improvement of instructional programs used in the physical training of students and school-children.
IN THE MARXIST THEORY OF SOVIET PSYCHOLOGY
L. A. Radzikhovsky
It is stated in the article that despite claims of theoreticians the process of restructuring of Soviet psychology according to the dialectical-materialistic program is still at the beginning stage, although some brilliant attempts to achieve this aim can be cited (L.S. Vygotsky, A.N. Leontiev). In the author's opinion the gap between psychological empiricism and Marxist philosophy can be bridged by means of introduction of a new metalanguage which would integrate the plane of external motivating objects and the plane of mental subjective representations.
TO THE PROBLEM OF A DIALECTICAL PARADIGM
IN SOVIET PSYCHOLOGY
A. B. Orlov
As an answer to the author of the preceding publication four points are stated: 1) world psychology, Soviet Marxist psychology included, is in the process of transition from metaphysical to dialectical methodology; 2) different sorts of confrontational «collective monologues» between metaphysically oriented psychologists and Marxism-oriented philosophers result in a variety of crisis-like situations in psychology; 3) L.S. Vygotsky's work is primarily important as an example of correct scientific approach to the study of psychological problems; 4) there must be realized a drastic restructuring of the process of academic training of psychologists — they must learn to work in a specific «intermediate» position, differing both from that of metaphysical psychology and from that of Marxist philosophy.
GENERAL SPHERICAL MODEL OF DISCRIMINATION
BETWEEN COLOURED SIGNALS
T.V. Izmailova, Ye.N. Sokolov, Ch.A. Izmailov, G.Ya. Livshits
156 colors (25 spectral and one neutral lights varying from 0,2 cd/m2 to 200 cd/m2) were classified according to a five categories (red, yellow, green, blue, white) color-naming technique. Experimental data were analyzed by means of a multidimensional scaling procedure. It turns out that minimal dimensionality of the Euclidian space providing a linear relationship between the interpoint distances and the estimated color differences is four. Color points do not fill completely the four-dimensional space but are located on a hypersphere. The phenomena of constant hue and color opponency of spectral stimuli were used to correlate the coordinates with the neurophysiological data. The first (X1) and the second (X2) cartesian axes correlate with red-green and blue-yellow opponent channels. The third (X3) and the fourth (X4) cartesian axes correlate with bright and dark nonopponent channels. At the same time three spherical coordinates are directly connected with three psychological color characteristics — hue, saturation, and brightness.
CHANGES IN THE SENSITIVITY
WHEN SOLVING THINKING PROBLEMS
K. V. Bardin, T. A. Zabrodina
Sensorial thresholds as measured in a conventional psychophysical experimental set-up have been compared to those measured under conditions when discrimination becomes a part of a more complex thinking task. It is shown that in the first situation the process fully corresponds to predictions based on the present-day psychophysical theory, while in the second one there occures a re-organization of the structure of mental processes in such a way that senses become directly connected with higher cognitive levels.
STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONS OF THE ALCOHOLIC ANOSOGNOSIA
Structure and functional aspects of the alcoholic anosognosia were studied by means of original and modified (D.V. Olshansky) Dembo - Rubinstein scales (50 chronic alcoholics were compared to a control group of 20 subjects). Alcoholic personality syndrome was revealed in the alcoholic subjects. Farmacological means were found to produce only temporary effects without touching in any way the system of subjective attitudes of patients which continued to determine their behavior.
PERCEPTUAL DIFFERENTIATION AND OPERATIONAL THINKING IN 4-8-YEARS-OLD CHILDREN
J. Piaget's experiments concerning development of the quantity retention notion have been repeated with the view to establish a wider cognitive basis of changes in perception with age. It is shown how practical and perceptual experience combined with new developments in thinking provides the ability to come to correct decisions about the observed events.
METHODS Of STUDYING THE IDENTIF1CATORY PROCESS
Methods of studying the process of identification used in the psychology abroad are reviewed. Two groups of methods are established. One, which includes observation, rating of behavior, and questioning, is mainly used with preschoolers and younger schoolchildren. The second one, which includes standardized questionnaires, semantic differential scales, and personality construct procedures, is used with older children (12 years and older) and is aimed at establishing the perceived similarity. Limited nature of corresponding studies — as a result of understanding the identification as a mechanism of acquisition of the role behavior — is shown and analyzed by the author.