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Developing of psychology in the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist republic


Benedictov B. A., Kolominsky Y. L.


Psychology in the BSSR is especially well developing during the last ten years. Studies of new problems are being undertaken, while traditional lines of research are becoming more closely integrated into the Soviet and world psychology, on the one hand, and into the practical life of the society, on the other. Geography of psychological research in the Republic and work of particular researchers are described in some detail with particular accent on applied aspects.


Psychology in the Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic


Plotniek I. E.


A brief historical sketch of developments in psychology in XIX century and pre-Soviet Latvia is followed by a detailed list of fundamental and applied research which has been beeing performed in the Republic during the last 15 years. The paper is basically a report on what is being done by whom and where. An accent is made on practical implementation and practical work of Latvian psychologists.


Developmental psychology in the Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic


Liimets H. I.


History and present-day state of the developmental psychology in Estonia are described. Development of this branch of psychology in the Republic is shown to be a product of integration of different external influences (Rubinstein, Ananiev, Leontiev) into the mainstream research as it started establishing in the 20-30-ies. Original findings of Estonian psychologists are presented as well as basic trends in their applied work.


Practical and academic psychology: Divergence of cognitive structures within professional consciousness


Etkind A. M.


Differences between cognitive structures used in academic (research-oriented) and practical (consultive) psychology are reported. Analysis of corresponding categories reveals divergence in the use and interpretation of basic notions such as space, time, causality, and probability, as well as in accepted forms of generalization, description, in norms of discourse, and in the general concept of man. Necessity of a dialogue between "the two psychologies", is argued; difficulties in the way of implementation of this recommendation are discussed.


Changes in the cognitive representation of objects in the process of mental development


Chuprikova N. I.


Present-day psychological and psychophysiological data concerning transition with age from integral perception of multi-dimensional objects to discrete representation of their particular features are systematically reviewed. It is argued that the most fundamental mental process in the senior pre-school and in the junior school age is the process of cognitive differentiation which is manifested in a number of peculiarities of attention, perception and thinking, and which results in ever better voluntary control over cognitive functions.


The problem of emotional control over the learning-cognitive activity


Chebykin A. Ya.


Studies of the relation between emotions and cognition are analyzed, as well as studies attempting to describe corresponding functions and aspects of emotions and the way they are related to different structural elements of activity (motives and goals). Mechanisms of emotional control over particular stages of the learning-cognitive activity are considered. Some recommendations as to how to increase this regulatory function of emotions are given.


Emotional regulation in teaching


Milrud R. P.


Teacher's personality has been taken as a starting point in the study of the regulatory function of emotions in teaching. It has been experimentally proved that the ability for emotional control is formed in the process of acquiring the repertory of emotional responses on the basis of learned perceptions of oneself and of partners in different kinds of activities. A method of psychological correction of the emotional control in the behavior of teachers is suggested which is based on a classification of teachers' psychological-semiotic reactions and on a normative profile of emotional behavior obtained on a representative group of teachers.




Development of the pedagogical tact through the media of art and literature


Borisova A. A.


A general characteristic of the notion under study is provided, as well as a basic approach to development of tact in teachers - through development of meaningful attitudes. Some recommendations are given concerning proper selection of applicants to pedagogical high schools. An accent is made on understanding the social situation of their psychological development in childhood and adolescence. Influence of such factors as parents' interests, enthusiasm for literature and arts is discussed.


On the problem of development of musical creativity in a child


Vishnyakova N. F.


Indirect ways to promote musical creativity in children and a corresponding procedure are suggested. Efficiency of the procedure depends on the ability on the part of a teacher to provide corresponding microclimate for the children and to offer them proper problemic situations. The procedure consists of three consecutive stages; their goals and operational contents are presented.


Psychological conditions required for organization of contacts between children in the Infants' house


Tsaregorodtseva L. M.


The article is adressed to practical workers of Infants' houses who are badly in need of psychological data concerning the regularities of interaction in a group of junior children. Specificity, psychological meaning, and stages of appearance of both communicative and non-communicative behavior are presented. Particular attention is given to the role of contacts in psychological development of the inmates of Infants' houses. Some practical and methodological recommendations are given as to how an adult can organize such contacts between children, especially in their first year of life.


Cross-cultural perspectives in development of the social-psychological knowledge


Ageyev V. S.


Role and meaning of cross-cultural studies for further development of social psychology and other branches of psychology are considered. Cross-cultural studies of the inter-group interaction and of the conformist behavior performed abroad are analyzed. Results of two cross-cultural studies of the non-verbal communication and social perception performed under the author's guidance are presented. Necessity to intensify cross-cultural studies in order to achieve progress in a number of major theoretical issues in psychology is argued. Some constructional ways of dealing with them through the media of social-psychological analysis are outlined.


Speech behavior as the overcoming of conflict situations


Rozov A. I.


Man's linguistic reality is built on the basis of his speech experience and is a sum of verbal precedents arranged both in a spontaneous (according to a categorical system) and in a purposive way (through education). A distinctive feature of this linguistic reality is its great stability owing to which, on the one hand, mutual communication is possible, while, on the other hand, ready-made verbal forms impose themselves upon principally new, non-linguistic contexts. The discrepancy between actual requirements of a non-linguistic reality and the obsessive old forms of expression may create conflict situations. In order to overcome them the subject has to appropriately direct the intrinsic flows of his productive mental work.


Peculiarities of reproduction of verbal material under conditions of mediated communication


Bolshunov Y. V., Soloviev V. M., Oparina N. S.


The study is aimed at understanding how verbal material is reconstructed after it has been passed through a chain of imformers. Experiments have been performed on 7-, 8-, and 9-th graders, and on students of a pedagogical high school. It is shown that under the conditions tested the original text loses its volume, and its meaning may get distorted, however its basic plot retains. Different types of reconstruction of the text are described as function of subjects' thinking and of their general mental activity.


Students' achievements as a function of peculiarities of their character and of the state of their attention


Rabinovich P. D., Nuzhdina M. P.


Some psychophysiological characteristics, and peculiarities of attention have been assessed in two groups of students and further correlated with their academic achievements. It is shown that the "good" and "excellent" correlate with higher aspiration level, leadership style, and egocentricity. Ability to concentrate attention was 2.7 times higher in this group as compared with the "satisfactory" group. Weak motivation, low level of demands upon themselves result, it appears, in lack of self-confidence and, consequently, in low level of achievements.




Content of thinking operations in the structiure of spatial thinking


Kaplunovich I. Ya.


Psychological content of thinking operations regarded as complicated psychological formations has been studied in the context of spatial thinking. It has been experimentally proved that in every thinking operation one may single out topological, metrical, algebraic, and ordinal elements of corresponding substructures of the spatial thinking. Age dynamics of the structure of thinking operations is described.


A procedure to assess the state of speech in children


Pavlova A. A., Shustova L. A.


A possible approach to assessment of speech in pre-school and junior schoolchildren is considered. It is based on a multidimensional analysis of the process of perception and of the subsequent retelling of instructional tests. Parameters possessing most important prognostic value are discussed in some detail.


Study of volitional qualities of schoolchildren with the help of the "unsolvable problem" procedure


Aleksandrova N. I., Shulga T. I.


The authors describe at length how the procedure they suggest can be used for the study of volitional qualities as they are manifested in learning activity. The procedure is particularly good for the study of will as a function of emotionality; it enables the teacher to predict the behavior of particular pupils when they meet with a difficulty in the process of learning. The procedure is rather simple to use, and provides for an easy procession of raw data.


Intellectual psychodiagnostics system


Kulmagombetov A. R., Epstein V. L., Yampolsky L. T.


An expert system to be used in automatized psychodiagnostic studies is described. From similar computerized systems this one differs in two respects: (I) It has two subsystems - instrumental and testing ones; the former is to be used in design of testing subsystems, while the latter is a means of automatization of the psychological experimentation. (2) Automatic processing of raw data and consequent interpretation of results of psychological study are based on use of the professional knowledge.


Development in children of the object permanence concept


Subbotsky E. V.


Foreign studies concerning development in infancy of the object permanence concept (OPC) are reviewed. Seve al lines in the study of this problem (first outlined by J. Piaget) can be established: (I) testing the reliability and validity of the OPC study methods suggested by Piaget; (2) looking for the "minimal age" when it is possible to reveal the OPC in a child, and establishing those features of an object which make it seem permanent; (3) study of children's behavior when an object suddenly disappears from the visual field and is substituted by another one; (4) study of the psychological mechanism of the so-called "localization error"; (5) establishing general dynamics of the OPC in children from birth to the age of two years; (6) elaboration of computerized models of the OPC development. The review is concluded with a brief summary of the researches and an outline of the present-day state of the problem.