Developing of psychology in Republics of
Brief excursus into the history of psychological developments in the area are followed by sketches of the present-day state of the discipline. Basic lines of research are outlined. Works of particular researchers as well as particular psychological institutions are presented in some detail in the context of psychological studies performed in the Soviet and in the world psychology.
The problem of organized work in the psychology of management
Filippov A. V., Il'in G. L.
An attempt is made to define the subject-matter of the psychology of management, and to show the specificity of its basic notions. Particular attention is given to the problem of individual socialization in the process of organized common work. Three basic aspects of the problem are considered: socialization of individual work, socialization of individual needs, socialization of behavior in managerial situations. Particular tasks which arise before managerial psychologists in the corresponding context are analyzed. The principal idea of the suggested solution of the socialization problem consists in the rejection of the "immediacy postulate" and its substitution with the postulate of organized common activity as an intermediate link.
A concept of semantic-contextual learning in the higher education school
Verbitsky A. A.
Psychological-pedagogical aspects of the process of restructuring of the higher education system are considered. A number of contradictions on the path from learning as a student in a high school to independent professional work has been revealed. A model of efficient transformation of the learning activity into the professional one based on the principle of semantic-contextual teaching is suggested. The model is illustrated by particular cases of corresponding training.
Psychological specificity of the individual style in teaching
Markova A. K., Nikonova A. Y.
An approach to the study of the individual style in teaching is outlined. Some features of a teacher's educational activity concerning the content, results, and formal-dynamic aspects of the latter are described and patterned with the view to obtain a typology of individual styles in teaching. Comparative efficiency of them is discussed. Practical recommendations to teachers as to how they can immediately improve their teaching style are given.
Individual features of self-control in organization of one's attention
Petrovsky V. A., Cherepanova E. M.
The problem of self-control on the part of a subject over the content of his consciousness is discussed. The authors are particularly interested in the age and individual-typological factors contributing to the appearance of the "idea about one's own idea" ("cogito"). The content and dynamics of reflected and pre-reflection consciousness workings of a subject are analyzed in this context.
Specificity of social responsibility in senior schoolchildren
Sidorova T. N.
Social responsibility is regarded by the author as an integral personality characteristic, as a criterion of its social maturity. Its structure has been shown to be a unity of the following three components: cognitive, motivational, and behavioral. It has been experimentally shown that development of social responsibility in schoolchildren is heavily influenced by their participation in productive, socially useful work. Five variants of the structure of social responsibility in senior schoolchildren are described.
Development of learning-cognitive operations in younger schoolchildren as a function of the type of their collective activity.
Rivina I. V.
An experiment has been performed with the view to reveal which modes of organization of collective activity (in groups of 3 and 2 persons) are most efficient from the point of view of development of systemic operations in younger schoolchildren. Correspondingly four experimental situations have been designed differing in the type of distribution of functions in the common activity. It is shown that organization of the collective activity at the content-object level produces the desirable effect in 78 % of cases.
Sex differentiation and interpersonal relations in a group of children
Abramenkova V. V.
Social-psychological aspects of the problem of sex differentiation in a group of children are analyzed. The data concerning historical-cultural forms of the sex-role behavior, evolution of real-life children's associations within the sex-age structure of the society, and the interpersonal relations of contemporary boys and girls in groups of the same sex, are drawn into the analysis of regularities of development of children's behavior in correspondence with their sex. A non-uniform determination of a child's attitude to his/her age-mate at different ontogenetical levels (from to 13 years) has been revealed. Development of the psychological sex, and of the personality as such in social groups can be understood only in the context of historical, present-day, and perspective trends in evolution of those groups.
New developments in the personality of children during the three years crisis
Guskova T. V., Elagina M. G.
A new personality formation which develops at the stage of the three years crisis has been studied. Given the name "achievement pride" it has three aspects covering, correspondingly, the system of relations to the world of objects, to other people, and to himself. In psychological terms the new development can be interpreted as appearance of a new vision of himself - through the prism of one's own personality, one's Ego, while the adult acquires the status of a judge of the achievements. The new formation gives the start to development of self-appraisal and of aspirations, and its appearance therefore is an important stage in the growth of self-comprehension.
Specificity of pre-schoolers' searching activity in solving visual-practical problems
Knyaseva O. L.
Ontogenetical aspects of the goal-setting process, and searching activity regarded as one of the most important components of the visual-practical activity have been experimentally studied. The data obtained in the study make it possible to differentiate levels of organization and of semantic orientation of practical behavior of 3-7-year-old children in problem situations. Direct and indirect methods of teaching children to analyze problem situations have been developed by the author as well as quantitative methods of assessing different instructional devices used to promote development of the visual-figurative thinking.
A way to use a computer in teaching general education subjects
Sholomy К. М.
A theoretical approach is presented which makes it possible to compile efficient computer programmes for teaching general educational subjects. The programmes are based on model representations of the knowledge to be finally acquired (such models are in fact sets of all possible problems and tasks corresponding to a particular subject, and of their solutions). The models are used for making up training exercises, performance of which would lead to development of the desired knowledge. It is discussed at which stages the use of computers is especially effective, and which forms of computerized instruction are counterproductive and are therefore to be avoided. The approach is illustrated by a computer programme for teaching Russian in the V-th form.
Psychological classification of needs
Kaverin S. B.
Classification of needs (organized in the form of a matrix) is suggested with the view to specify the structure and limits of the corresponding sphere of personality. The classification is based on the activity and the subordination-domination principles. Consecutive stages in the development of needs, starting from their biological prototypes are described, as well as the logic of their transition up the stages. Internal completion and sufficiency of the matrix is argued and illustrated.
Internal and external motivation for learning
Milman V. E.
Internal motivation for learning is manifested in coincidence of subjective motives with the social goals of the learning process; it is characterized by harmonious correlation between components of the internal structure representing the object content of the learning activity. External motivation is manifested in the discrepancy of subjective motives with the social goals of learning which is accompanied by corresponding inversions in the structure of the internal representation of the learning activity. Determinants of both types of motivation are discussed, as well as possible mechanisms and paths of their development.
Effect of development of cognitive functions on psychophysiological indices of the orienting reaction in a child
Ibatullina A. A.
Some parameters of the base-line electrical activity of the brain of a 4-year-old child and their changes under conditions of intensive intellectual training concerning the ability for visual modelling have been studied. It is shown that progressive development of the cognitive function results in trasfer of the cerebral mechanisms of the orienting reaction to a new and more progressive level of structural-functional organization, and in more intensive orienting-researching activity on the part of the child.
Structure of the pedagogical thinking in a teacher
Osipova E. K.
A possible way to develop professional thinking in a future teacher on the basis of a normative model of thinking of professional workers is described. Psychological provisions for the proper control over the process of development of the thinking are discussed, as well as corresponding instructional strategies, training routines, and methods of evaluation of intermediate results.
Normative diagnosis of the level of a learning-cognitive activity in a schoolchild
Muldarov V. K., Rubtsov V. V.
A method to establish the state (level) of learning-cognitive operations in a child is presented. The method is based on the study of the ability to analyze an object as a system of interrelated elements, to perform reflexive consideration of one's own actions, to restructure the operational schemes given by adults. It is shown that fixation on the search of the essential property of the object (a genesis principle), seeing a relation between object-content elements of the operations comprise most important psychological indicators of the developmental status of learning-cognitive operations in schoolchildren.
Psychodiagnostics in Spain
and applied aspects of the psychodiagnostical work in