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Advances in the development of fundamental and applied psychology in the Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic


Kriagzhde S. P.


Psychologists are being trained in Vilnius State University only since 1969. By now about 300 professional psychologists have been prepared. The main body of them work as practicing psychologists within a wide net of republican institutions and services. Psychology in the Lithuanian Republic develops along the whole array of basic directions: general, developmental, educational, engineering, industrial, medical, vocational training and orientation, etc. The state of psychological research in the Republic must be given positive mark since every year a number of its outcomes are being inculcated and used in practice (industrial, pedagogical, and medical).


Psychology in the Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic


Zhabitskaya L. G.


Educational psychology is the branch of psychology traditionally most developed in the Republic. In connection with the school reform and with transition of the school education to the 6-year-old level a number of experiments is being performed in the Republic since 1981; particular attention is given to adaptation of the 6-year-olds to the school life, and to their communication with age-peers and adults, to the problem of development of written speech in younger schoolchildren, etc. Another large area of scientific-applied research concerns different aspects of social-psychological work in the industrial context: problems of management, psychological climate in blue-and white-collar groups, factors of work efficiency, etc. Lately applied aims in the psychological research have been particularly stressed. At the same time it is to be said that the efforts of psychologists in the Republic are not centered around a fixed set of important issues, and there is still a lack of large scientific collectives.


On the psychological-pedagogical provision of the reform of general-educational and professional school (review of the data collected by the Coordination Board attached to the Presidium of the USSR APN)


Bodaliov A. A., Demidova S. I.


Reports from all institutions administered by the Academy of pedagogical science dealing with problems concerning psychological-pedagogical provision of efficient work of teachers and of the school as a whole have been analyzed with the view to show the best and the worst in the researches performed there. Basic trends are shown, principal shortcomings and insufficiencies in the work and methods of both scientific research and of planning and controlling institutions are revealed and discussed, as well as possible reserves to be used in order to overcome them.


The concept of proximal zone of development and its possible role in solution of urgent problems in educational psychology


Gilbukh Y. Z.


An attempt has been made to analyze and specify L. S. Vygotsky's idea of the proximal zone of child's development in the light of pressing needs of the educational practice. It is pointed out in connection with this that together with such a zone which provides for reproductive independent performance on the part of a pupil, there appears in the process of learning another kind of a zone — that of his creative independence. Formative efficiency of learning is at that directly proportional to the size of this zone (and not only of the proximal zone of development) and inversely proportional to the combination of instructional influences. Introduction of a computer into the instructional process makes it possible to perform accurate operative diagnosis of both zones and thus to purposefully cultivate them.




Three paradigms in psychology - three strategies of psychological influence


Kovalev G. A.


In correspondence with three psychological paradigms which the author establishes: 1) trans-active vs. hypodermic, 2) actional vs. reactive, and 3) processual vs. affectational — three types of psychological influence are named: imperative, manipulative, and developing. Detailed characteristics of the three types are given (conditions, mechanisms, etc.).


Intragroup mechanisms in socialization of toddlers


Slobodskaya E. R., Plusnin Y. M.


The system of individual preferences of toddlers during a semistructured game in the kindergarten has been investigated. It has been found to vary depending on the type of activity: highly centralized unipolar structures (co-operative object game, distribution of visual attention in a group), or poorly centralized multipolar structures (spatial proximity, taking away an object, aggressive contacts). Sex-related preferences of toddlers have been found - boys demonstrate distinct preferences for their own sex, girls typically do not prefer their own sex.


Role of communication with an adult in development of the object-manipulatory activity of a first-year-old child


Smirnova E. O., Roshka G. N.


Proceeding from the data obtained in the study designed by M. I. Lisina the authors single out two principal kinds of adult's influence on development of an image of an object in an infant: 1) the adult attaches to the object the "affective charge" motivating the manipulatory activity of the infant which finally leads to appearance of an image, 2) the adult patterns in an adequate way the motor activity of the infant by teaching him specific operations with the object which thus becomes the mechanism of formation of an image of the object. Motor and orienting activity of the infant directed to the object serve as indicators of the availability of qualitative peculiarities of the image of an object.


Development of a general method of solving tasks of a particular class under conditions of collective work


Semenova M. A.


Results of an experimental study of the possibility to develop a general method for solving, a certain class of tasks under conditions of collective-distributed work are presented. The study has been performed on the material of tasks requiring representation of trajectories of complex motions. A system of instructional assignments is suggested aimed to promote development of a general method of solving tasks of the given class, as well as a system of corresponding diagnostical tests. In the study all the subjects progressed to a higher level of development of the general method of solution of the experimental set of tasks.


Some developmental peculiarities of the ability for psychological interpretation, on the non-verbal behavior


Labunskaya V. A.


Ability for psychological interpretation of the non-verbal behaviour has been considered as a subjective factor which mediates the process of interpersonal behaviour. Its dynamics in ontogenesis is reconstructed against the background of the growth of personality as the subject of active interpersonal communication (particular attention is paid to the stages of adolescence and youth). An analytical structure of the ability is suggested; and individual variants of development of the ability are presented proceeding from changes in the structure as a result of increasing complexity of communication in ontogenesis. Relation between the level of the ability and the place of the individual in a small group is discussed.


Psychological analysis of the educational generalization in S. N. Lysenkova's system


Bogoyavlenskaya D. B.


Ahead-of-schedule instructional procedure practiced by S. N. Lysenkova is based on three principles: economy of time, visual supports, commented control. This set of principles represents psychological regularities underlying the development of empirical generalizations by students.


Psychological-pedagogical analysis of adults' addresses to children


Chirkova T. I.


A classification of adults' addresses to children is suggested. More than 7000 addresses have been analyzed on the basis of the classification. Positive and negative aspects of the most frequent classes are described. It is shown that the classification can be of use in the assessment of the efficiency of the educational process and in planning of corrective measures.




Communication while learning a foreign language, and emotionality


Samarova O. V.


The author compares manifestation of some emotional qualities in everyday life and in the process of communication while learning a foreign language. Specific changes which the emotional states undergo in the process of the learning communication activity are described.


Educational use of the TV informational-publicistic broadcasts for adolescents


Shkolnik L. S., Kostenko N. V., Manayev О. Т., Saar A. A.


The authors show how different educational goals can be achieved with the help of existing TV broadcasts for adolescents. Practical experience of teachers as well as experimental lessons and reviews are presented and discussed. Some recommendations for the teachers as to how the data obtained in such research should be used are given.


Psychological-pedagogical consultation at school


Pahalian V. E.


Experience accumulated by a psychological-pedagogical consultation service organized by a high-school chair of pedagogics and psychology is described. It is shown how the tasks set forth before the psychological staff of the high school by the law of the school reform can be realized through a system of such consultations. In the author's opinion such service provides a feed-back for the "high school - secondary school" system and creates possibilities for increasing the efficiency of the instructional-educational process in schools of both levels.


Perspectives in the professional-technical education


Batyshev S. Y.


Different aspects of the professional-technical education, specificity of the present-day stage, concrete tasks set forth by the school reform, corresponding theoretical and applied problems are dwelt upon. Particularly the following problems are dealt with: theoretical (social-economical, psychological) justification of the necessary changes in the structure of education (of the new approach to the content, forms and methods of teaching, of the ideological-educational work, to the training and re-training of the teachers personnel); organizational problems (interrelations between specialized vocational training schools and enterprises, establishment of specialized laboratories and divisions within high schools and headquarters factories and plants); elaboration of general, unified requirements to the training of professional personnel; prediction of changes in the professional-qualification structure of labour, etc. A complex approach to consideration of the above problems is suggested. The necessity to develop principles of polytechnical education as the basis for professional training of a new type is underlined.


On the communicative nature of musical abilities


Tarasov G. S.


В. М. Teplov's well-known concept is complemented by the artistic-communicative approach to the problem of musical abilities. During the forty years which passed since publication of Teplov's book the situation in musicology has seriously changed — now we have a lot of data which testify to correctness of the communicative approach (E. Nazaikinsky, V. Medoushevsky, et al.). Psychological observation of children's behavior and experiments performed with students of Moscow conservatory provided additional information supporting the above statement.


On practical work in psychological fields


Radzihovsky L. A.


Logical-methodological, social, and organizational aspects of the problem of correlation between a psychological theory (particularly — a theory of personality) and corresponding applied work are discussed. The author proceeds from the idea that a psychological theory can be "functionable" only when its logic, language and goals constitute a natural outgrowth, specific form of explication (verbalization) of the logic, language and goals of practice. Some organizational-social outcomes of the suggested approach are discussed.


Operation of comparison in speech communication


Samoylenko E. S.


The way men use comparisons in verbal communication has been experimentally studied. The subjects were to assess the difference between complicated pictures while describing them. It has been found out that the subjects tend to substitute the task to verbalize the similarity of objects for the initial task to verbalize the difference between them. This substitution may serve as an adequate indicator of




the degree of perceived dissimilarity between the objects. Three manners of verbalization are established corresponding to the degree of perceived dissimilarity.


Development of the proving reasoning in youth


Gankova Z. A.


Proving as a logical operation is regarded in two aspects: as an investigative activity and as a method of promotion of thinking activity in schoolchildren. Peculiarities of proving in subjects belonging to different age groups show that this type of logical thinking goes on developing in the period of youth. Results of a teaching experiment testify that logical thinking, appearance of logical operations significantly depend on the way they are taught and acquired.


Role of the object content of activity in the interaction of sets


Shapirstein G. Ya.


It has been experimentally shown that sets actualized by a particular activity may be functionally contradictory or cooperative depending on the place of the object content of the activity in its over-all structure. Goal-related sets may exert at that regulatory influence on the functional relations of operational sets.


Professiographic aspects of decision-making in vocational choice


Smirnov A. I.


Proceeding from E. A. Klimov's multi-dimensional classification of professions the author suggests a method of vocation selection based on combination of parameters presented in advance to the client. The method makes it possible to represent the required vocation as a linear system (profile) of indicators which may be directly used by the consultant or fed into a computerized system.


Experimental study of certain types of the rigidity of thinking


Nizharadze G. A.


Some phenomena of the problem-solving rigidity have been investigated. Considering the experimentally obtained data it can be stated that there exist at least two types of rigidity: 1) motivational rigidity (Einstellung-effect, and the like) which tends to increase in anxiety, and 2) insight rigidity which arises during the solution of insight problems and which is not characterized by the above tendency.


Prediction of the speed of motor learning on the basis of genetic markers


Sergienko L. P., Korenevich V. P.


Correlation between some dermatoglyphic markers and the speed of acquisition of motor skills has been studied (the study was designed in the context of predicting motor abilities in beginning sportsmen). Specific genetic indicators of the capacity for quick acquisition of motor skills established in the research are described.


Development of the self-actualization concept in A. Maslow's work


Leontiev D. A.


The author presents a detailed description of A. Maslow's theory of motivation from the point of view of development and transformation of the central concept of this theory — the concept of self-actualization of personality. Five successive interpretations of the concept have been established - self-actualization as: 1) the highest, ultimate level of the development of personality, 2) the highest motivation, 3) the process of personality development, 4) episodic bursts of inspiration, 5) prerequisite of the true Being of personality. Criticisms of western writers in address of the theory are analytically reviewed. Particular attention is given to the issue of the biologistic approach to understanding of the man's nature in Maslow's theory.


Some trends in the study of language and communication in present-day Western psychology


Stetsenko A. P.


The author critically reviews studies of language and communication which are being published by "Springer-Verlag" in a serial under the same title. General-psychological meaning of a number of linguistic theories and empiric studies is discussed, as well as some methodological problems of selection of adequate experimental procedures and interpretation schemes, and of definition of the very subject-matter of the study.


Improvements in the initial stages of teaching to read


Lingart J., Tourkova M.


A new method of teaching to read (in the I-st form) is suggested. The method is based on the psychological theory of instruction developed by one of the authors (J. Lingart, 1982); the theory assumes four phases in the process of instruction. Ten requirements are formulated which are to be satisfied in order to guarantee efficiency in the teaching to read.