PSYCHOLOGICAL PROBLEMS OF DEVELOPMENT OF THE INNER WORLD IN MAN
V. I. Slobodchikov
A conceptual model of appearance and development of the inner world in man's ontogenesis is offered. Co-being of an adult and an infant, of an infant and other people forms the starting ontological basis of man's "Self". Behind the dynamics of the co-being and development of individual capacities there are processes of identification of the child with others and processes of his individuation, separation from others. Intertwined work of mechanisms of imitation and reflectivity underlies the process of development of the inner world. Particular forms and contents of Self at different ontogenetical stages are considered.
DEVELOPMENT OF INTERESTS IN LATER ADOLESCENCE
T. P. Shakhova
Free time of adolescents has been studied by means of two techniques in order to reveal new resources for the development of personality in an adolescent. Seven categories of activities and of related interests have been established as well as specific conflicts between actually performed and desired activities (correspondingly — between realized and claimed interests). Pattern of change in the interests of senior adolescents is described, and an attempt is made to indicate the boundary between adolescence and youth.
DYNAMICS OF THE PROFESSIONAL KNOWLEDGE IN STUDENTS OF VOCATIONAL-TRAINING SCHOOLS AS A FUNCTION OF THE METHOD OF INTRODUCTION INTO THE TRADE
V. N. Obnosov
Psychological aspects of professional preparation of students in vocational-training schools are considered with an accent on self-regulation mechanisms of the learning-professional activity. Conditions most favourable for the development of active personality at the vocational training stage are discussed. It is argued that active subjective involvement and, correspondingly, efficiency of activity are related to the image of oneself as a future professional. This image is the more adequate the earlier a student gets involved into the real-life professional activity.
PSYCHOLOGICAL REQUIREMENTS TO IMPROVED TEXT-BOOKS ON THE RUSSIAN LANGUAGE
S. F. Zhuikov
It is explained in the article how the new Programme on the Russian language makes it possible to realize principles of the developing education and how it provides for higher levels of theoretical mastery of the subject. Some relevant psychological data are brought in to show that younger schoolchildren are capable of learning the native language at the analytical-synthetical level corresponding to the developing education methodology. Requirements to the Russian language text-books are stated which can ensure the realization of the Programme.
INTERPERSONAL CONFLICTS IN A PEDAGOGICAL COLLECTIVE AND WAYS TO CORRECT THEM
R. Kh. Shakourov, B. S. Alishev
Theoretical part of the article is devoted to introduction of the notions of "conflict" and of "conflictedness", and to analysis of causes of interpersonal conflicts between the personnel of vocational-training schools (their psychological qualities are considered as well). A corresponding experimental study is reported as well which has revealed that in collectives with more closely organized common activity the personality-communicative qualities of their members to a lesser extent determine the character and dynamics of possible conflicting attitudes and that the latter are rather determined by functional factors. The article is concluded with some practical recommendations.
REGULARITIES OF COMMUNICATION IN A CREATIVE COLLECTIVE
Ya. A. Ponomariov, Teh. M. Gadzhiyev
Communication is regarded as a unity and interpenetration of its communicative as such (transfer of information) and creative (generation of the information) elements. Human communication is assumed to be always communicative-creative in nature, though each of the two poles may dominate in particular cases. Creative function developed it is supposed as a by-product of the communicative one. Some stages are outlined through which the development of the creative communication might possibly go: capacity to generate, objectify, and understand new ideas. It is suggested by the authors that these stages transform into structural-organizational levels of the process of communication which are functionally isomorphic to stages of the problem-solving process in a creative collective.
DMITRIY NIKOLAYEVITCH UZNADZE
(to the 100-th anniversary)
Sh. A. Nadirashvili
D. N. Uznadze created an original line of research in psychology — the theory of set which found wide acceptance both in this country and abroad. Main stages in life and creative work of D. N. Uznadze are presented.
L. S. VYGOTSKY: SEARCH FOR PRINCIPLES OF CONSTRUCTING THE THEORY OF PSYCHOLOGY
M. G. Yaroshevsky
An attempt has been made to reconstruct L. S. Vygotsky's pathos at different stages of his creative life proceeding from some established though little known facts from his works and biography. Stereotypes and open mistakes in perception and interpretation of Vygotsky's contribution to the general-psychological theory are dealt with in some detail. Relevance of his methodological approach to the present-day search for principles of constructing psychological theory is stressed.
CULTURAL-HISTORICAL STUDIES IN WESTERN PSYCHOLOGY
R. Van der Veer
Researches performed by Western psychologists proceeding from L. S. Vygotsky's cultural-historical theory are discussed. It is shown that works by J. Bruner and J. Wertsch dedicated to the problem of learning, and those of A. L. Brown dedicated to the problem of the zone of proximate development not only confirm correctness of Vygotsky's theoretical ideas, but also creatively develop them.
PSYCHOLOGICAL SPECIFICITY OF CONTENT ANALYSIS IN YOUNGER SCHOOLCHILDREN
S. V. Riakina
Results of an experimental study of the level and structure of the content analysis performed by 7-10 years old children are presented. The study has been based on A. N. Leontiev and V. V. Davydov's theoretical framework; modified Kohs’ block-design test was the principal experimental procedure.
THINKING MEDIATED BY COMPUTER-SUPPLIED INFORMATION
T. V. Kornilova
Positions from the game of "
A GEOMETRIC MODEL OF THE STRUCTURE OF KNOWLEDGE
Ye. N. Sokolov, A. Yu. Teriokhina, S. B. Rebrik
Methods of multidimensional scaling have been used to understand some characteristics of perceptual, mnemic, and semantic images of complex spatial configurations made of points. Subjects' representations of the geographic map have been also studied. It is shown that semantic spaces constructed by means of multidimensional scaling procedures can be a useful indicator of the level of instructedness.
A METHOD OF SELECTING SUBJECTS CAPABLE OF VISUALIZATION OF THE PROBLEM SITUATION
V. I. Kapran, V. I. Ligatchiov, N. A. Yegoroushkina
A method is suggested to deal with a rather urgent task of selecting people who can easily visualize the problem situation and who can efficiently transform corresponding visual representations. The primary task in developing the method consisted in establishing the outward indicators of the mental visualization. Some general mechanisms of visualization and of fixation of after-images stable in relation to the retina have been found. Criteria for testing individual differences in the efficiency of the representational thinking are suggested, as well as some procedures helpful in promotion of the ability to visualize.
A METHOD FOR THE STUDY OF INTERPERSONAL BEHAVIOR IN A PRIMARY COLLECTIVE
Understanding causes of social-psychological events which take place in primary collectives is an important task. Relations between people comprise an important factor determining man's health and efficiency. The procedure suggested can be effectively used for the purpose of improvement and better control over different sorts of collectives.