MAIN TASKS OF PSYCHOLOGICAL STUDIES IN THE LIGHT OF DECISIONS OF THE XXVII-TH CONGRESS OF THE CPSU
A. M. Matiushkin
Top priority tasks and goals as set before the Soviet psychology by decisions of the XXVII-th Congress of the Communist Party are listed and considered in some detail. Strategy of the psychological research must be centered around the necessity to find ways to apply psychological knowledge in the sphere of activization, development, and realization of the Human. Factor in all fields of practical and social activity, and thus to make a ponderable contribution to the acceleration of development of the socialist society. Specific organizational and purely scientific measures to be taken in order to achieve the above aim are outlined, and corresponding potential of particular branches of Soviet psychology are analyzed.
COMPLEX STUDY OF ABILITIES (TO THE 90-TH ANNIVERSARY OF B. M. TEPLOV)
E. A. Golubeva
В. М. Teplov was one of the leading researchers of the problem of abilities in the world's psychology and the author of an objective methodology of analysis of abilities and endowments. Differential psychophysiology, a branch of studies he created, is an attempt to combine the up-to-date developments in the Pavlovian typology with promising modern theories of personality and individuality. The author provides a summary of the experimental data which prove Teplov's idea that typological properties of the nervous system constitute a part of the natural basis of development of abilities/ endowments. In particular results of studies of voluntary/involuntary functions, mnemic, linguistic, musical, learning and educational abilities are discussed in relation to the following three spheres of man's activity: work, cognition, communication.
SOME TRENDS IN PRESENT-DAY PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY
B. I. Kochubey
A selective review of the literature makes it possible to formulate three principles of the present-day psychophysiology in contrast to the "orthodox" one. They are: 1) activity vs reactivity, 2) selectivity and specificity vs globality and undifferentiation, 3) relatedness to the informational content vs "energy" of stimulus and brain processes. A conclusion is made that the main object of the present-day psychophysiology is not the neurophysiological basis of the mind and personality, but the physiological activity which reflects, realizes, and incarnates specific patterns of mental activity, meaningful "human — world" interaction.
SOCIAL-PSYCHOLOGICAL SPECIFICITY OF THE COMMON PLAY AND WORK ACTIVITY OF PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN
Ya. L. Kolominsky, В. Р. Zhtenevsky
Common (joint)-play and common work of preschoolers are compared. Both activities share similar communicative-organizational basis which makes it possible to compare them in an experiment along some social-psychological dimensions. It has been noted that play is more accessible for the children: here their behavior is more interrelated, and functional duties are here distributed in a more optimal way. A conclusion is made about the necessity to improve the methods of supervision in relation to the common activity of pre-school children.
SOME PECULIARITIES OF CHILDREN'S IDEAS CONCERNING MAN'S PSYCHE
Ye. V. Soubbotsky
Ideas of 5-13-years-old children concerning some aspects of man's psyche (sensation, perception, speech, causes of moral behavior, etc.) have been considered. It is shown that the "anthropomorphicity" and globalism of preschoolers' opinions about man's psyche are substituted in junior schoolchildren with more "natural-scientific" and differentiated understanding of the structure of some psychological functions; at the same time dynamic determinants of development of the mind (like the object activity, communication, education, and learning), the role of which is not yet perceived by the preschoolers, start finding place in the schoolchildren's causative judgements concerning the appearance of psychological phenomena.
PSYCHOLOGICAL PROBLEMS OF DEVELOPMENT OF COMPUTER COMPETENCE IN SCHOOLCHILDREN
V. N. Kaptelinin
The article is composed of two parts: discussion of psychological criteria of the computer competence in schoolchildren, and conditions of efficient development of it. Three types of competence are named in the first part: a) daily life, b) professional, c) related to the computer as an intellectual tool; for schoolchildren the third one is most important. Further a system of intellectual abilities required for efficient application of the computer for a wide scope of problems is considered. The second part deals with the so-called problem instruction which is stated to be the basic condition for the proper development of the computer competence. Principles of organization of the instruction of this type are outlined, as well as some issues of individualized approach to instruction, and of control and optimization of children's functional states during learning.
BASIC PRINCIPLES OF CORRECTING THE DISTURBANCES OF SPEECH COMMUNICATION
Yu. B. Nekrasova
Principles of social rehabilitation of people with disturbed speech communication are outlined: 1) communicative, 2) activating, 3) prolonged preparedness to perceive the "healing word", 4) successive nature of the therapeutical-pedagogical process, 5) paradoxal nature of the emotional-stress therapy session, 6) formation of a psycho-therapeutical collective, 7) development of the introgenous behavior, 8) common creative activity of the stutterer and the psychotherapist; the communication principle is the system-constituting one at that. The above system of principles of social rehabilitation of stutterers facilitates its introduction into the practical work concerned with correction of disturbed speech communication.
TYPOLOGY OF THOUGHT'S MICRODEVELOPMENT
A. Z. Zak
Typology of microdevelopment of thinking regarded as a process of looking for a solution of a problem has been elaborated. The way the content of the problem is understood determines peculiarities of the control over the process; at that the process is mediated by particular operations of manipulation with elements of the content. Four levels of control are described — on the basis a) of situational understanding, b) of the general principle of solution of problems, c) of understanding specific principles of solution, d) of understanding the interrelations between the general and specific principles. Three levels of mediation are presented: manipulation with material objects (a), with their images (b) and denotations (c). A table is given which includes 60 types of thought's microdevelopment at different levels of control and mediation. It is shown how the concept of the "microdevelopment type" can be applied to a number of problems in the psychology of thinking.
BIOGRAPHICAL METHOD IN THE LIGHT OF B. G. ANANIEV'S IDEAS
N. A. Loginova
Contribution of B. G. Ananiev into development of the biographical method is shown, as well as the present-day status of the method in psychology. Conceptual and operational apparatus of the method is outlined. Some biographical procedures suggested by the author are described.
SOME PROBLEMS IN THE PSYCHOLOGY OF COMMUNICATION
G. L. Ilyin
Communication is regarded as one of two principal forms of psychological activity which concerns the attitudes to the world as a living object in contrast to treating it as an inanimate object. It is assumed that the nature of a subject's attitude to an object is determined not only by the object, but also by the subject's state, intentions, and the level of his development. The assumption is specified in the process of analysis of some psychological problems: development of historical forms of thinking, of child's development, of individual thinking and learning, of the behavior of an individual in a social organization, and of the scientific status of psychology.
TO THE PROBLEM OF INDUCEMENT OF ACTIVITY
I. V. Imedadze
The author questions an assumption in A. N. Leontiev's theory of activity that the latter is induced not by the need as such but by the object with which this need has come to be associated. In particular the positions forwarded in S. P. Manoukian's article published in this magazine (1984, N 3) are disputed. Some logical and theoretical arguments which make inacceptable the above assumption are given. A conclusion is made that there are no convincing evidence
which would justify substitution of the traditional psychological postulate that behavior (and intentional activity as well) is motivated by needs.
QUANTITATIVE ESTIMATION OF THE VOLITIONAL EFFORT IN PHYSICALLY INTENSIVE WORK
V. A. Ivannikov, E. V. Eidman
A new method of estimation of the volitional effort is suggested. It is shown that delayed breath can be used as an adequate method of estimation of volitional efforts. Concrete strategies to be used in order to achieve a common level of the working capacity are described.
DYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF INTELLECTUAL ACTIVITY IN STUDENTS WITH DIFFERENT MOTOR EXPERIENCE
Ye. D. Khomskaya,
Capacity for voluntary acceleration of counting (as a form of serial intellectual activity) was studied on students with different motor experience. It is established that regular engagement in sports activity is favourable for training the capacity for voluntary control over not only motor but intellectual functions as well. Dynamic characteristics of the intellectual activity are directly related with the current functional state: they become worse in fatigue and under conditions of emotional stress.
RATIO OF SIMULTANEOUS REMARKS OF PARTNERS IN A GROUP SOLUTION OF PROBLEMS
V. A. Polikarpov
Psychological theory of thinking as a process worked out by S. L. Rubinstein and his pupils provided the basis for the reported experiment and for detailed discussion of its results. Dependance of partners' thinking developing in response to each other's remarks (under conditions of dialogue) on proximity of their level of analysis and current prediction processes was found out. A mechanism of cognitive interaction between subjects in the dialogue is described.
STUDY OF DUNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF EMOTIONAL REACTIVITY PERTAINING TO THE PROBLEM OF ACTORS' TALENTS
V. I. Kotchniev
Subjects with higher "actor's" mark are characterized, on the one hand, by relatively higher intensity of voluntarily generated emotional reactions and, on the other hand, by higher adequacy (accuracy in content and in time) of such reactions in relation to the current of images which stimulate them. Measures of intensity and adequacy of voluntarily produced emotional reactions are positively correlated with professional efficiency of the subjects. It is possible to assume therefore that the regularities of emotional reactivity revealed in the study are significant indicators of the predisposition for the activity of acting.