" " (1980-1998 .).  ... 

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PRESENT-DAY STATE AND PERSPECTIVES OF THE RESEARCH IN THE FIELDS OF PSYCHOLOGY, DEFECTOLOGY, AND AGE PHYSIOLOGY

 

A. A. Bodaliov

 

The article presents main topics and issues discussed by the author in the report he delivered at the last Session of the Academy of Pedagogical Sciences (22nd of May). The chief thrust of both the report and the article is to outline the basic directions in the advancing of the scientific state and social efficiency of Soviet psychology, defectology, and age physiology.

 

ASSESSMENT OF THE LEVEL OF LABOUR EDUCATEDNESS IN SENIOR SCHOOLCHILDREN

 

O. Yu. Yermolayev

 

A questionnaire is offered for assessment of labour educatedness of senior schoolchildren. The questionnaire is a variety of personality measurement inventories and has been constructed along 6 scales (qualities): "diligence", "collectivistic orientation", "socially useful labour activity", "responsibility", "creative attitude to labour", "discipline". Constructive validity of the test has been proved by mathematical-statistical procedures. Results obtained by the author enabled him to reveal certain regularities in development of labour educatedness as a feature in the personality of senior school-children.

 

DEVELOPMENT OF LITERARY ABILITIES IN PROFESSIONAL WRITERS IN THEIR SCHOOL YEARS

 

Ye. A. Korsounsky

 

Autobiographical data on 137 writers belonging to different times and cultures has been subjected to quantitative-qualitative analysis. As a result basic elements of the structure of readers' and literary-creative abilities as well as objective and subjective factors of their development have been revealed. The facts found in the study can be used for purposeful promotion of literary skills in schoolchildren.

 

DEVELOMPENT OF HUMANE ATTITUDES, AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY OF CHILDHOOD

 

V. V. Abramenkova

 

The necessity is argued to set up a special interdisciplinary field of studies of the ontogenesis and sociogenesis of the personality in childhood: social psychology of childhood. The data pertaining to development of humane attitudes is used to present the following three aspects of manifestation of interpersonal relations in social groups: role-functional, estimating-emotional, and sense-personal. The empirical results obtained by the author show that socialization of humane attitudes in ontogenesis correspond to the general-psychological pattern of development of a higher form of behavior L.S. Vygotsky and A.N. Leontiev's "parallelogram of mediation". Appearance, functioning, and purposeful development in the child of attitudes to the world, other people, and to oneself mediated by joint goal-directed acting in the social situation of development constitute the subject-matter of the outlined field. The perspectives of the later are seen in studies of development of the personality in a child in different cultures and at different stages of man's social history.

 

PECULIARITIES OF THE TRANSITORY PERIOD IN 6-7-YEARS-OLD CHILDREN

 

Ye. Ye. Sapogova

 

The transitory period between the pre-school and school stages of childhood (traditionally called "the crisis of 7 years") has been studied. Parents, educators, and teachers were talked to, and a method of establishing the level of development of imagination and of the symbolic function outlined by L.S. Vygotsky and adapted to the purpose of the study was used. It has been proved that the "crisis" is real and is related to the change of the leading activity; its manifestation depends also on the level of imagination and symbolism. Children characterized by lesser development of them manifest the transition phenomena during the first year in school; majority of children come through the crisis in pre-school years, they demonstrate higher level of imagination and symbolism, and all negative trends in their behavior disappear when they begin studying at school.

 

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PECULIARITIES OF SELF-COMPREHENSION IN 6-YEARS-OLD CHILDREN

 

T. N. Ovtchinnikova

 

Peculiarities of self-comprehension (self-image) as well as correlation between the self-image and some features of self-estimation as they are manifested in the behavior and productive activity of a child were studied. It has been found out that the 6-years-old child's ideas concerning himself rather adequately represent the system of his values. The study reveals also that self-estimation and self-control in a child of this age closely correlate with the nature of his ideas concerning himself: the child estimates himself and his possibilities in accordance with particular spheres of reality where he perceives himself where he constitutes his "self".

 

VARIABILITY IN TRANSFORMATION OF AN OBJECT BY PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN AS A CONDITION FOR UNDERSTANDING ITS MEANING

 

A. N. Poddiakov

 

Ways of practical transformation by children of specially designed objects with the purpose of understanding their hidden properties and structural relations were observed and analyzed. It has been found out that the cognition process is determined by two interrelated factors: degree of variability of testing operations, and level of analysis and of generalization of the obtained information. Some new kinds of testing behavior have been observed, and their functions established.

 

COGNITIVE DIFFERENTIATION AND SPECIFICITY OF DEVELOPMENT OF GENERALIZATIONS IN THE SPHERE OF IMAGINATION IN SENIOR SCHOOLCHILDREN

 

S. A. Zakharova

 

Subjects were instructed to divide (during 4 sessions) into four groups cartoons made by four different artists. Efficient performance has been found to correlate with the ability to reveal and verbalize individual features of the artistic style. The latter in its turn correlates with such characteristics of the cognitive sphere as independence of the field and high development' of the second signal system (good development of the first signal system unsupported by a corresponding state of the second one fails to produce required performance). Some recommendations are made as to how general learning effects can be achieved by means of purposeful promotion of better cognitive differentiation.

 

LEGAL RECOGNITION AND PSYCHOLOGICAL PREPARATION OF YOUTH FOR MARRIED LIFE

 

B. S. Krouglov

 

Significance of legal education for preparation of youth for married life has been analyzed. Distinction of legal forms of control over marital-family relations from other social norms which determine domestic behavior of individuals is shown. Some practical outcomes of the absence of a positive attitude to legal norms are described.

 

ROLE OF STEREOTYPES IN COGNITION OF A MAN BY A MAN

 

N. A. Rozhdestvenskaya

 

Studies of social stereotypes performed in this country and abroad are discussed in the light of their value for promotion of better interpersonal perception. Stereotypes are considered from the point of view of their content and adequacy, stability and conditions of transformation, of their acquisition, origin, and functioning.

 

INTERPERSONAL COGNITION AND ACTIVITY

 

. . Romanov

 

Cognition of a man by a man under conditions of a common activity has been studied. It has been experimentally established that interpersonal cognition is determined by the content and nature of the activity through which a subject becomes incorporated into the activity common with other people (i. e. by his particular tasks, goals, motives, role positions). Socially oriented outward practical operations of the subject are of principal cognitive importance at that.

 

PSYCHOLOGICAL ISOMORPHISM: REALITY OR ILLUSION?

 

R. M. Meshchersky

 

N.P. Bekhtereva's studies of the "neural code" of mental processes are used as a material for critical analysis of the concept of the psychophysiological isomorphism. It is argued that "neuro-physiology" and the mind are two independent ontological categories with their own mechanisms, regularities, and functions. Physiological processes can not constitute the basis of the mind.

 

190

 

ON SOME METHODOLOGICAL ISSUES IN THE STUDY OF THE BRAIN V. MIND PROBLEM (ON THE OCCASION OF R. M. MESHCHERSKY'S ARTICLE)

 

N. P. Bekhtereva, Yu. L. Gogolitsyn, Yu. D. Kropotov, S, V. Medvedev

 

As is seen from the title the paper is an argument-by-argument critical assessment of the position forwarded by the author of the previous article. R.M. Meshcherskys position is said to be a direct product of a number of logical inconsistencies, or of insufficient physical and mathematical competence.

 

THE PRINCIPLE OF CREATIVE SELF-INITIATIVE

 

S. L. Rubinstein

 

In the 1922 article by S. L. Rubinstein we find the first formulation of the principle of activity: "...in his deeds, in acts of his creative self-initiative the subject is not only manifested and disclosed; he also gets created and established in them".

 

THE PROBLEM OF ACTIVITY IN THE HISTORY OF SOVIET PSYCHOLOGY

 

A.N. Leontiev

 

Development of the category of "activity" in Soviet psychology is traced in the article. In is shown that originally, in L.S. Vygotsky's school the notion of activity existed under the disguise of "practical intellect" and was closely related to the idea of "mediation" of mental processes. Links between the studies of the "Kharkov group of psychologists" (A.N. Leontiev, P.Ya. Galperin, A.V. Zaporozhets, L.I. Bozhovich, P.I. Zinchenko) and L.S. Vygotsky's ideas are described.

 

INDIVIDUAL PSYCHOLOGICAL CONSULTING IN THE CONTEXT OF FAMILY PSYCHOTHERAPY

 

A. F. Kopyev

 

Situations when it is advisable to work individually with clients of the family consulting service are described. Psychological states when such approach is preferable, and some general and particular problem which may arise in the context of such work are described (among them: the client's responsibility, goals and means of the consultant's work, duration of contact, types of advice, etc.). The concept of the "open-ended consulting" is suggested where goals and means are not pre-determined but correspond, on the one hand, to the present state of the client and, on the other hand, to the degree of his responsibility and to his preparedness for change.

 

STUDY OF MOTIVATIONAL-EMOTIONAL REGULATION OF THINKING UNDER CONDITIONS OF CONFLICTING ACTIVITIES

 

E. Z. Usmanova

 

Specificity of behavior and of cognitive activity as a function of peculiarities of motivational-emotional regulation of thinking under conditions of a conflict in a play has been studied. Three groups of subjects have been experimentally singled out: 1) with domination of cognitive motivation, 2) with domination of achievement motivation, and 3) with shifting motivation from cognitive to achievement motivation. The difference between the groups is shown to result from difference 1) in perception of conflicts in the play, and 2) in approach to analysis of the play.

 

RELATION BETWEEN PROFESSIONAL MOTIVATION AND CREATIVE ACTIVITY IN ENGINEERS

 

E. S. Tchougounova

 

The problem raised in the article has a number of important theoretical and applied connotations in particular it directly pertains to the question of stimulation of the engineer's work. The article is based on the author's experimental studies performed in different organizations of Leningrad and other cities.

 

TEMPORAL CHARACTERISTICS OF PERCEPTION OF OBJECTS OF A GIVEN SIZE

 

V. M. Krol, Ye. I. Bondar, V. D. Sosina

 

Results of three groups of experiments dedicated to a time study of visual recognition under conditions of a search of objects of a given class are discussed. Tachistoscopically presented test figures were masked (different kinds of

 

191

 

interfering noise were used); temporal thresholds of perception and the time of recognition responses were measured. It has been found out that perception in a situation of directed search I results in lower thresholds for the majority of temporal stages of the recognition process.

 

CORRELATION BETWEEN THE STRUCTURE OF SELF-ESTIMATION AND THE REGULATION OF ACTIVITY BY GOALS IN NORM AND UNDER CONDITIONS OF PATHOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT

 

B. S. Bratus, V. N. Pavtenko

 

Dialectical relations between goals of different levels in norm and in pathology are considered. The authors' hypothesis that psychopathies are characterized by rigid relations between real and ideal goals, while neuroses are characterized by hyperseparation of them has been experimentally proved. A new view of the structure of self-estimation is introduced, and its psychological components and substructures are outlined. Some specific disturbances in relations between different substructures in neurotic and psychopathic patients are described, and connections between these disturbances and peculiarities of the goal-setting process are shown. Corresponding recommendations pertaining to psychological-corrective work are provided.

 

PECULIARITIES OF REGULATION OF THINKING IN ANOMALOUS INDIVIDUALS

 

I. A. Kudryavtsev, A. N. Lavrinovich

 

A creative problem solving procedure (I.N. Semionov, V.K. Zaretsky) has been used for the study of 41 patients with psychological (psychopathical) disturbances of historical and excitable types. It has been possible to experimentally prove the hypothesis that decreased productivity and peculiar thinking in anomalous individuals are determined by disturbed balance between reflexive and emotional regulation of thinking which results in domination of meaning over content. Differences in mechanisms of disturbed thinking in the studied groups of patients have been established.

 

STATICAL AND DYNAMICAL IN THE VISUAL WORLD OF AN INFANT

 

E. A. Sergienko

 

Results of an experimental study of the capacity for visual perception of statical and dynamical stimulation in early ontogenesis are presented. Age specificity of visual perception: from preference of dynamical stimulation in the earliest periods of the ontogenesis (4-6 weeks) to preference of statical stimulation (8-16 weeks) is shown. A similar trend characterizes development of visual functions: from perception of movement to preference of statical stimulation.