PSYCHOLOGY OF CREATIVITY AND CREATIVE WORK IN PSYCHOLOGY
M. G. Yaroshevskiy
Systems approach to the study of the creative process requires integration of its subject-matter, social, and personality components. The basic unit of analysis in this field is the research programme which synthesizes different categories of cognition (represented in an individual mind in the form of images schemes), patterns of communication of the scientist in question with the scientific community (in particular — his circle of oppositive communication), relevant features of personality (internal motivation etc.). Two particular levels of consciousness are singled out in the structure of creative activity. While the subconsciousness level is manifested in its being determined by the past, the peculiar supraconscious level of creativity — in its being determined by the required future determined by the logic of movement of the social-cultural thought.
PSYCHOLOGICAL REGULARITIES OF SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT OF PERSONALITY IN ONTOGENESIS
D. I. Feldshteyin
The essence of man's social development consists in his individual development, its goal, highest stage, and end product is the appearance of personality. Therefore in the study of mechanisms and conditions of the personality formation the most important place belongs to the research concerning specificity and stages in the social development of a growing man. Different degrees of the latter process are related with different stages of the ontogenesis. They are marked with clear-cut boundaries where the achieved results of the social development are fixed. Two types of such boundaries are distinguished intermediate and nodal. Those of the first type correspond to a child's transition from one ontogenetical period into another. The nodal boundaries signify qualitative shifts in the social development. Three stages of the social development process are outlined, as well as both inter and intra-stage mechanisms of personality formation
A MORAL ASPECT OF LEARNING MOTIVATION IN ADOLESCENTS
G. S. Abramova
An experiment has been performed with the view to establish how different moral categories possessed by adolescents can be used as means of stimulation in them of learning motivation. The categories are shown to be developed to different degrees in different kinds of learning activity, and special efforts on the part of an adolescent are needed to make them operative. In particular it requires mastering of both the learning operations as such and the system of communication with others where the value of those operations becomes evident. Moral categories appear to be a means of realization by an adolescent of his personal responsibility for maintaining obligatory requirements to learning.
CONDITIONS FOR THE TRANSITION FROM EXTERNAL TO INTERNAL OPERATIONS IN THE PRESCHOOLERS SOLVING PROBLEMS
Ye. O. Smirnova
A hypothesis has been experimentally checked that verbal means of problem solving first develop on the social-type material and only then are transferred onto inanimate objects. It has been shown that the speech accompanying operations with social and quasi-social objects is much richer in its qualitative and quantitative aspects. The fact is explained by the impossibility of direct physical interaction with living objects and by the specificity of their nature.
ACTIVE GROUP METHODS OF SOCIAL-PSYCHOLOGICAL TRAINING FOR MANAGERS AND SPECIALISTS
Yu. N. Yemelianov
A didactic construction is suggested which contains from the point of view of contents of the social psychological learning — some techniques of interpersonal situations analysis, from that of methodology — the educational training group as a new organizational form of learning, and from that of the learning process guidance — a rough model of the personality and of the instructor activity in group methods of learning.
The article presents some theoretical-methodic principles of a new organizational didactic pattern and is intended for training of managers and various kinds of specialists. The new pattern uses a combination of conventional and active methods with clearly formulated training goals which makes it possible to increase the scientific character of education, to promote the cognitive activity of students, and to help them with obtaining of the social psychological knowledge and with mastering of the communicative skills.
CENTENARY OF THE FIRST EXPERIMENTAL-PSYCHOLOGICAL LABORATORY IN RUSSIA
Ye. A. Boudilova, V. A. Koltsova
An important period in the history of psychology in this country is presented — that of laying out the foundations of the experimental research. Facts are given which characterize basic lines of studies and principal results obtained in the first Russian experimental laboratory established in Kazan in 1885 by V. M. Bekhterev.
THE PROBLEM OF DIAGNOSIS OF CONSCIOUSNESS IN M. M, BAKHTIN'S WORK
L. A. Radzikhovskiy
Some aspects of the literary production of a famous literary critic and a historian of literature M.M. Bakhtin are analyzed. It is shown that Bakhtin created an original concept of the consciousness. The most important characteristic of the latter he saw in its inherent dialogism. The dialogism manifests itself not only in the contents of the mind (unwound and wound up dialogues), but in its structures as well. It follows from Bakhtin's work that there are two layers in the consciousness: an open and a closed one to introspection. The closed layer is the one where sits the universal dialogism of the mental structures — the dialogism which establishes the internal sociality and the dialectical character of the consciousness.
SET AS A METHOD OF STUDYING THE FATIGUE
G. N. Ketchkhouashvili, Nai Kim Kyong, M. Kaoukitch
The problem of fatigue has been considered in the light of D. N. Uznadze's general-psychological theory of set. Psychological mechanism of fatigue is seen in peculiar changes in the pattern of activity; fatigue is accompanied by disturbances in the adaptational mechanism of set which results in various functional shifts and disturbances.
SEARCH OF COMPLICATED INFORMATION IN SEMANTIC MEMORY
K. M. Sholomiy
Reading activity is taken as an example to show that the region of search for immediate information may encompass millions of mnemonic units. A question is thus provoked — how does the mind cope with the problem of finding the needed unit? A model is suggested, assumed to be sufficient to provide an answer, which is based on successive scanning in hierarchically organized memory. In order to prove the point successive scanning in the absence of such hierarchical organization is compared with it under conditions of available hierarchy. The results show that in complicated cases hierarchical memory facilitates the search hundred thousand times. A corresponding method of establishing the reaction time for any number of items is presented. Examples of realization of the method on the stimulus alphabet up to 23-106 are provided.
PECULIARITIES OF ESTIMATION AND SELF-ESTIMATION IN THE SITUATION OF PREDICTION OF PERFORMANCE
T. V. Galkina
Estimations and self-estimations are regarded as a specific group of tasks based on the ability to perform mental operations. The higher the ability, the more efficient are the process of solving tasks requiring estimations and self-estimations and the process of self-regulation of predictive behavior. Experiments conducted by the author with the help of a new apparatus technique developed together with Ya. A. Ponomariov proved the initial hypothesis and enabled the author to offer some recommendations concerning ways of overcoming difficulties in learning and education.
A METHOD OF ESTABLISHING VALUATION STATEMENTS OF GROUP MEMBERS
Yu. V. Sinyagin
A new solution of the problem of selection of group members based on achievement of their valuation — orientational unity and not on the principle of similarity of their characterological peculiarities is suggested. Results of experimental verification of an original procedure of establishing the degree of normativity / variativity of individual moral and valuation judgments are discussed (the procedure is patterned on the principle of divergence in men's consciousness of the two scales: "good — bad" and "you can — you must not"). It has been shown that in sufficiently united collectives agreement of the data obtained by means» of the above technic is much better than in newly organized groups; at the same time collectives of higher degree of the social-psychological development are characterized by larger variability of judgment.