MAIN TRENDS IN THE STUDY OF THINKING AT THE LEVEL OF IMAGES
The article is devoted to the problem of development of thinking at the level of images in ontogenesis; it is emphasized that the empirical picture of the world is based on a system of categories, on sensuous-practical experience, on rational procession of the latter in relation to different executed activities, and on acquired scientific data. The contents of mental images are basically constituted of complex dynamic psychological formations differing in the level of their generality, stability, and schematicity, and by their origin. Thinking in images is characterized by significant age and individual differences which are manifested in particularities of image formation, in particular ways they are manipulated and transformed (both mentally and in presence of visual supports), in corresponding perceptual activity, and in emotional-subjective attitude to the environment. Particular attention is given to the mechanism of mental representation as a specific activity which possesses its own contents, highly complicated structure, and requires specific conditions for proper development.
TOTAL PERCEPTION AND RECOGNITION LEARNING
A new interpretation of the total perception phenomenon is suggested inconsistent with the idea that internal, psychological acts are in fact interiorized external, practical ones. The interpretation is also inconsistent with the one-way Gestalt theoretical approach which explains the relations between the whole and its elements as a domination of the "whole→elements" determination.
A fundamental aporia has been formulated, which must be solved for proper consideration of the problem of total perception; a possible approach to its solution is suggested.
Connection between particular ideas concerning the nature of the total perception and methods of teaching recognition skills is analyzed. A hypothesis is forwarded that the teaching should be broken into stages in correspondence with the microgenetic stages of the development of the total image; an example of the realization of the approach is presented.
STAGE-BY-STAGE FORMATION OF MENTAL BEHAVIOR IN VOCATIONAL TRAINING
Practical realization of some aspects of a Soviet theory of stage-by-stage formation of mental behavior for the purpose of vocational training is discussed. It is argued that practical application of the stage-by-stage procedure must be preceded by a comprehensive psychological analysis and development of a psychological model of the given kind of vocational training. Some successful and unsuccessful examples of application of the discussed methodological approach are presented. It is shown that efficient application requires multivarious research directed to optimal "coupling" of psychological requirements and of concrete (economical, manufactural, social-psychological) features of the training situation. Constructive use of achievements of the science of psychology in the practice of vocational training requires also preliminary psychological-pedagogical preparation of the training personnel.
PERSONALITY AS A SYSTEM
At attempt is made to present personality not as a list of relevant qualities but as a hierarchically structured system of them. Personality for the author is a socialized man, individuality, considered in his socially most important characteristics; at the same time personality must be regarded as a component of a larger, higher level system — society. The model presented can be instrumental to teachers in their efforts to find ways of developing in children socially desirable and most fundamental personality qualities.
DEVELOPMENT OF THE NEED FOR COMMUNICATION WITH AGE-PEERS IN EARLY CHILDHOOD
Study of the appearance and development of the need for communication with age-peers in early childhood has revealed that the need passes through successive ontogenetical stages: it first appears during the third year of life on the basis of earlier developed needs in new impressions, in active behavior, and in communication with adults. Principal factor which initiates the new communicative need is the adult who organizes the subject-subject interaction between children.
AGE AND INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN PERCEPTION OF LITERARY TEXTS BY SCHOOLCHILDREN
Stages in development of a schoolchild as the reader are described. By means of a method of age and historical projections the author reveals dominant features in the attitude of schoolchildren to the work of literature: naive realism (IV-VI form), moral self-absorption (VII-VIII form), comprehension of social-esthetical causes and consequences (IX-X form) Different spheres of the reader's perception (emotions, imagination, comprehension of the content and of the esthetical form of the piece of literature) appear in the process of ontogenetical evolution not at the same time and manifestly depend on the type of the reader ("artist", "thinker", "neutral"). Individual peculiarities of perception however do not abolish trends characteristic of each stage in the development of the reader.
PERCEPTION OF AGE-PEERS AND OF ADULTS BY ADOLESCENTS AND SENIOR SCHOOL-CHILDREN
T. V. Snegiriova
Relation between individual-typical peculiarities and general-chronological regularities in the sphere of interpersonal perception in adolescence and early youth has been studied. "Cognitive complexity — cognitive simplicity" as a structural characteristic of personality has been used as a background against which the individual-typical is revealed. The study shows that the age dynamics of interpersonal perception is subject both to general-chronological and individual-typical peculiarities of schoolchildren; these peculiarities overlap in a certain succession at different points of development with age. An important characteristic of the process consists in the presence of periods of increased sensitivity to those aspects of experience which are connected with appearance of new formations in the period of adolescence and early youth.
FORMATION OF KNOWLEDGE ACQUISITION PATTERNS AT A LESSON
A procedure is suggested with the view to increase efficiency of acquisition by schoolchildren of the natural science data. The procedure is based on the theory of learning activity developed in S. L. Roubinstein's and A. N. Leontiev's schools. Some learning devices are considered which seek to put the pupil into the position of a subject of an object-transformation activity. This goal is achieved through creation of problem situations at a lesson; dealing with them pupils simultaneously master the meaningful and operational aspects of information.
PSYCHOLOGICAL DIAGNOSIS OF MARRIED COUPLES
A.N. Volkova, Т.М. Trapeznikova
Psychological problems in diagnostical analysis of spouses are discussed. A corresponding program is suggested including some diagnostical tools; some ways of dealing with the information obtained during the study of the spouses are presented with particular accent on the family methods.
PSYCHOLOGY OF ARTISTIC PERCEPTION IN A. V. ZAPOROZHETS'S WORK
D. M. Doubovis, K.E. Khomenko
A. V. Zaporozhets's studies in the field of psychology of artistic perception started a new approach to the study of the complicated impact of pieces of art (literature, theater) both on children and on grown-ups. His ideas are especially useful to-day because of the particular attention paid now to the problem of moral education and comprehensive development of personality.
TO THE HISTORY OF ESTABLISHING BY V.M. BEKHTEREV I OF THE PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGICAL LABORATORY AT THE KAZAN UNIVERSITY
S.Ye. Drapkina, M.Ya. Poliakova
The article is devoted to the 100-th anniversary of the establishing of the first psychophysiological laboratory in Russia at the Kazan university by an outstanding scientist V. M. Bekhterev (October, 1885). A great number of researches carried out in the laboratory paved new ways in neurology, psychiatry and psychology. Bekhterev rejected the method of self-observation, and fought against idealistic psychology looking for materialistic bases in psychiatry and psychology. He argued that in studying abnormal mental activities with the view to achieve complete recovery of the mental health of the patient one must proceed from understanding of the normal mental status. Research performed by Bekhterev and his pupils is a historical landmark in Russian and world science.
ON THE CONTENT OF THE NOTION OF MUSICAL PITCH
Some immanent aspects of the phenomenon of musical pitch are reviewed. Proceeding from musicological, musical-acoustical, and psychological data the author attempts to classify and specify two fundamental kinds of measures of musical pitch which are known in musical psychology as timber and pitch-interval. The sound forms of their musical realization are also specified.
AN ATTEMPT TO DESIGN A DIAGNOSTICAL CRITERIUM-REFERENCED TEST
Some problems connected with the process of designing a criterion-referenced test of the degree of development of the ability to write equations are described. Specific features of such diagnostical test are considered; and — on the basis of a psychological analysis — the mental operations constituting the ability to be tested (i. e. the test's criterion) are established. Relation between the manner of dealing with instructional problems and with the test's items in discussed with particular accent on individual differences between the school-children revealed by means of the test.
PSYCHOLOGICAL STRUCTURE OF TEACHERS STATEMENTS IN THE PROCESS OF INSTRUCTION
Psychological structure of statements made by a teacher during the process of instruction has been studied. L. S. Vygotsky's "instrumental method" made it possible to learn about the deep psychological structure of a statement by its surface correlates open to direct observation and analysis. Results prove the hypothesis that the psychological structure of a teacher's instructional statements get developed under the influence of verbal communication with pupils and that it is different from the psychological structure of narration.
ANALYSIS OF RESULTS OBTAINED BY MEANS OF CRITERION-REFERENCED PROCEDURES
M.K. Akimova, V.T. Kozlova
The study has been performed with the view to work out a procedure of qualitative and quantitative analysis of results obtained in a diagnostical experiment (the procedure is based on employment of a social-psychological standard; R. Amthauer's intelligence test has been chosen as a diagnostical procedure). Two samples of subjects differing from each other by some important ontogenetic characteristics were estimated by the degree of their closeness to the standard represented in the test. Also qualitative analysis was performed, i. e. establishment of those criterial tasks where the difference between the samples was especially marked. The qualitative and quantitative procedures of processing the test results used in the study can be of significant use in the diagnosis of those peculiarities of mental development which are subject to ontogenetical factors.
SPECIFICITY OF DEVELOPMENT OF MEMORY IN 6-7-YEARS-OLD CHILDREN IN THE PROCESS OF LEARNING
I. P. Antonova
Exclusive importance is underlined of the task to improve instructional-educational work with 6-7-years-old children on the basis of their cognitive habits and of the development in them of the ability to acquire knowledge and learning skills.
DEVICES FOR THE STUDY OF STABILITY OF OPERATORS' PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGICAL FUNCTIONS
V.P. Grebniak, I.P. Zhoutchenko, V.P. Bobykh
Devices have been developed for assessment of voluntary attention and coordination of motor activity specific to professional functions of operators. Level of voluntary attention is measured by differential tracking of "tangled" lines on a transparent sphere in an enforced tracking regime. Stability of motor acts is estimated by accuracy and speed of performance of a specific task. Results of the study confirm that the devices are highly informative in relation to professionally important qualities of operators of movable systems.