SOVIET PSYCHOLOGY IN THE SERVICE OF THE DEFENCE OF MOTHERLAND
M. I. Diyatchenko
The Great Patriotic War (1941 — 1945) submitted the Soviet society, its army and science to a severe test. Having been driven by patriotic motives Soviet psychologists by immediate participation in battles and by their scientific research contributed to the victory over German fascism. Marxist methodology worked out in the Soviet psychology in the years before the war enabled the psychologists to draw creative conclusions out of the war experience, to comprehend the factors determining the outcome of particular combats — all of which was a serious scientific contribution to the development of the martial psychology in those years. Highly developed general psychology turned to be an important basis for solution of a number of theoretical and applied problems of defensive value (determinants of behavior of Soviet people in the battlefield, nature and conditions of their heroic behavior, prevention of fear and panic, accelerated training of military personnel, methods of camouflage and of reconnaissance, help to wounded, unmasking of the inhuman nature of fascism, etc.). Best psychologists of the time participated in research and in applied efforts. At present Soviet martial psychologists still take active part in the strengthening of the fighting and defensive capacity of the Soviet armed forces.
PSYCHOLOGICAL-PEDAGOGICAL PROBLEMS OF ENSURING THE COMPUTER-COMPETENCE IN PUPILS
V. M. Monakhov
In connection with the computerization of school education which is taking place in this country the author reviews the following issues: theoretical and methodological preparedness of the pedagogical sciences and of the school in general for the introduction of the new course, introduction of the information science and of computing as general education subjects into the Soviet school, systematic comprehensive study and critical evaluation of the foreign experience, employment of microprocessors as means of control over the process of learning.
CONTROLLED DEVELOPMENT OF OCCUPATIONAL INTERESTS
S. P. Kriagzhde
An instrumental theory of development of occupational interests is presented. The interests are represented in it as a dynamic combination of selective cognitive, emotional, and volitional activities. A genetical structure of the interests is suggested which encompasses all stages starting from that of birth till maturity. Some psychological mechanisms of control over the development of occupational interests have been established. The theory is based on critical analysis of both domestic and foreign literature; it has been checked in the author's experiments with representatives of different populations (preschool children, pupils of general education schools, students of high schools, teachers, workers in mass professions).
PSYCHOLOGY OF REFLECTION: PROBLEMS AND STUDIES
S. Yu. Stepanov, I. N. Semionov
Urgent problems in a new branch of knowledge — the psychology of reflection, the history of development and the present-day state of its basic lines, their philosophical-methodological and scientific-applied grounds are analyzed. Proceeding from the systems approach to a complex study of creativity the authors single out four types of reflection: intellectual, personality-bound, communicative, and cooperative. It is shown that interaction between them is a pre-requisite for appearance of new psychological formations. Main models of reflection mechanisms are described — in informational-cybernetic terms, in meta-activity terms, and in personality-meaning terms. Some possibilities of application of the knowledge concerning types and models of reflection in educational psychology and in human factors engineering are considered.
PSYCHOLOGICAL-PEDAGOGICAL PROBLEMS OF EFFICIENT APPLICATION OF COMPUTERS IN THE PROCESS OF TEACHING
T. Gergei, Ye. I. Mashbitz
Some psychological-pedagogical problems connected with introduction of computers into the teaching process are presented. It is stressed that development of efficient technologies of computerized teaching requires not only attention to specific problems connected with the use of computers machinery as such but further and better study of fundamental psychological problems of teaching — particularly of the content, methods, and forms of the latter. It is stated that psychological theories can be put into the basis of computerized teaching and learning only if they meet the following requirements: a) theories must be not only descriptive but prescriptive as well, at that their corresponding prescriptions must permit easy conversion into a form of technology; b) psychological theories of learning and of teaching must be congruous; c) the theories must be multi-faceted. Designs of corresponding studies are outlined; some problems of control over learning by means of
computers, and of optimal and individualized representation of the material to be learned under such conditions are discussed.
RELATION BETWEEN LEARNING AND MENTAL DEVELOPMENT IN SCHOOLCHILDREN
A. Z. Zak
Ability to do mental operations has been studied in I—X form schoolchildren as a function of the content of mathematics as a school subject. The study was based on the author's concept of thinking as a two-dimensional three-level process; the above ability has been treated therefore as a necessary factor in the search for a solution mediated in its turn by the ability to operate with images and semiotic substitutes of problem's conditions. The author's experimental technique (1983) has been used. It is concluded in the article that the second level of development of the considered ability corresponds to the acquisition of four arithmetical rules of dealing with natural numbers within a hundred, while appearance of the third level correlates with acquisition of the whole course of arithmetics.
ADEQUATE SELF-APPRAISAL AS A CONDITION OF MORALEDUCATION OF PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN
S. G. Yakobson, G. I. Moreva
An assumption that ability for critical self-appraisal is a psychological pre—requisite of observance of moral norms has been studied by means of learning how four different ways of negative evaluation of breaking a moral norm by a child influence his self-appraisal and his consequent observance of this norm. Sixty 6—7 years old children who persistently violated the norm of fairness participated in the experiment. It is found out that different ways of negative evaluation differently influence both the consistency of the return to the norm, and the degree of diminishing of the self-appraisal. Return to consistent observance of the norm (after a violation of it) is always preceded by deteriorated self-appraisal.
DYNAMICS OF THE ATTITUDE OF STUDENTS OF A PEDAGOGICAL
INSTITUTE TO LEARNING
V. N. Kosyrev, V. A. Slastenin, M. I. Starov
Different year’s students of a pedagogical institute estimated influence of some psychological-pedagogical factors on their attitude to learning. The influence of the factors was estimated by three dimensions: quality (positive— negative), strength (strong — weak), and persistence (stable — unstable). The factors were shown to differently influence the attitude depending on the year. The authors interpret their findings, consider the mechanisms underlying particular factors' influence, point to oversighted reserves which can be made use of in order to develop in students persistent and positively-motivated attitude to their principal activity — learning.
VOLUNTARY MEMORY IN 4-6-YEARS OLD CHILDREN UNDER CONDITIONS OF COMMUNICATION
N. M. Gnedova, S. M. Yelinova
Effect of presence of different partners (age-peer, tutor, mother) on voluntary memory in 4-6 years old children was experimentally studied. It has been found out that independent of age the memory of children is most efficient in the presence of their tutor. Older children accept seriously all kinds of tasks in the presence of any adult, while the presence of age-peers has as a rule a negative effect. Middle-level children memorize less efficiently both in the presence of age-peers and of their mother. Some peculiarities in the behavior of children which influence different characteristics of the voluntary memory have been also revealed.
SPECIFICITY OF THE ATTITUTE OF ADOLESCENTS TO THE IMITATIVE ARTISTIC ACTIVITY
S. P Ivanov
Schoolchildren of IV-VIII forms were questioned about their favorite forms of activity; particular accent was made on their attitude to the imitative artistic activity. It has been found out that most of all the adolescents like to observe pictures which present historical events, particularly battle scenes, which manifest their desire to join into the active life of grown-ups.
FORMATION OF MECHANISMS OF MASTERING THE RUSSIAN ORTHOGRAPHY IN MOLDAVIAN SCHOOLCHILDREN
L. N. Trofaila
Results of the author's study partly presented in the article prove that it is both possible and advisable to construct the course of the Russian language to be taught in the primary classes of Moldavian schools in the following way: presentation of certain theoretical knowledge concerning grammar and spelling should precede development of practical orthographical skills. Corresponding theoretical basis can be easily introduced to children through different kinds of analytical work with the language material. There are therefore significant learning reserves which can be used in order to raise considerably the quality of mastering Russian as the second language.
MENTAL IMAGES OF MEN AND WOMEN IN ADOLESCENTS
T. I. Yufereva
An experiment has been performed in order to study how men and women are represented in the mind of adolescents (VI-IX forms schoolchildren). The content of corresponding images and some sex/age differences of them are presented.
It has been found out that direct personal interactions with people of the opposite sex are practically the only sphere of individual experience which provides standards of masculinity/femininity. For the VII form schoolchildren this sphere is confined to their families, for the older group this sphere is composed of interactions with age-peers of the opposite sex. At that, former images do not become more elaborated but simply are substituted with new ones.
OCCUPATIONAL ORIENTATION OF SENSOR SCHOOLCHILDREN
T. M. Mkrtchian, A. Ye. Tchirikova
The complex structure of social and psychological factors responsible for the choice of an occupation by a school-leaver is considered. Effect of the social-occupational status of parents on life-plans of senior school-children is analyzed; some trends in the occupational interests of youth and underlying those needs and quests are described. Some recommendations are given to teachers and school psychologists as to how to increase efficiency of the occupation-orientational work in school.
CONTENT, DYNAMICS, AND HIERARCHICAL ORGANIZATION OF CONCEPTS USED IN THE PSYCHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF SUBJECTIVE TIME
M. S. Rogovin, Ye. V. Karpova
An attempt is made to critically review temporal concepts as used in psychological literature. Diversity of them is indicated as well as some inconsistencies in their use. The data presented by the authors obtained in a genetical study of the problem of time proves to a certain extent correctness of regarding the process of perception of time from the structural-hierarchical point of view. This approach, first, makes it possible to overcome some difficulties connected with application of temporal concepts and, second, may contribute to solution of more general problems in the psychology of time.
CONCERNING A PSYCHOLOGICAL PROCEDURE OF STUDYING THE DEDUCTIVE THINKING
M. S. Yeritzian, R. A. Pogosian
An attempt has been made to design a procedure for the study of the deductive thinking as a psychological reality. In the context of experimental communication with a subject the experimenter motivates the latter to start a train of such thinking. Communication is stimulated through a system of step-by-step questioning. The approach suggested in the article can be employed as a means of learning control.
DEVELOPMENT OF A DRIVE FOR AN ACTION
V. A. Ivannikov
The process of motivation of an activity and of particular actions is analyzed. Motivational process is regarded as an internal psychological act concerned with development of a drive for an act or an activity, and with maintenance of this drive in the process of realization of the activity. This requires distinguishing the notions of "motive" and "drive". It is recommended to use the term "motive" as a denomination of stable psychological formations which underlie the choice of goals, acts, means and ways of acting, and which determine the partiality of behavior. "Drive" is understood then as an immediate cause found at the beginning of an activity.
An attempt is made to show that voluntary motivational process is a mechanism of volitional behavior.
EVOLUTIONARY-GENETIC REGULARITIES AND THE PROBLEM OF DETERMINANTS OF MAN'S MENTAL DEVELOPMENT
A. Z. Kukarkin
The problem of relationship of biological and social determinants of man's mental development is considered in the light of theoretical-psychological comprehension of the principles of genetics universal for all forms of life and most essential at the biological level of organization of the physical matter. It is necessary to distinguish between evolutionary-genetic determination of the process of man's somatic maturation and of animal's ontogenetical behavior, on the one hand, and social-historical determination of man's mental development, on the other hand. In relation to man's psyche the evolutionary-genetic process has been substituted for by the historical process as represented by the evolution of culture and, at the same time, by an uninterrupted chain of productively self-sufficient individuals ("personalities"). Meanings of the genotype and of the personality as systemic qualities of an individual which reflect his being basically integrated both into the world of living matter and into the world of social relations are discussed in this context as factors influencing man's mental development.
INFLUENCE OF CULTURAL FACTORS ON PERCEPTION AND APPRAISAL OF A MAN BY ANOTHER MAN
V. S. Ageyev
The article is dedicated to the problem of interrelation between cultural factors and processes of interpersonal perception. A number of theoretical issues are considered — among them the problem of variant and invariant psychological properties, the problem of limits of such variability, the problem of nature and differences in psychological manifestations brought about by cultural factors. Results of experimental studies performed under the guidance of the author are provided which show the influence of cultural-historical experience fixed in the products of culture (particularly in proverbs and physiognomic marks) on the content of perception and appraisal of men by men. Differences in perception of the same people by groups of Russian and Vietnamese subjects established in those studies throw some light on the psychological mechanisms which may form the basis of social perception in general.
EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE EFFICIENCY OF POSTERS FOR CHILDREN
L. S. Shkolnik
An experiment was performed with the view to establish the base-line "meaning points" in the posters designed for adolescent schoolchildren, as well as to reveal persistent stereotypes of perception characteristics of them and the degree of correlation of such stereotypes with significant motives for activity The following results were obtained: 1) existence of persistent stereotypes in perception by schoolchildren of agitation visual aids, determined by their social-communicative experience, was proved; 2) persistence of the perceptual stereotypes was proved by their correlation with some outmoded educational appeals; 3) in some of the subjects there was found no developed stereotypes which could reinforce their civic activity; 4) iconic processes domineered in perception and memorization by the adolescents of the posters' content.
"PORTRAITS" AS A DIAGNOSTSCAL GAME AND A MEANS OF DEVELOPMENT OF PSYCHOLOGICAL PERSPICACITY
Ye. V. Korsounskiy
The "game of portraits" invented by I. S. Tourgenev has been turned by the author into an experimental procedure. It has been established that creatively more advanced schoolchildren more efficiently perform corresponding tasks and that psychological perspicacity of senior schoolchildren increases after some experience of participating in the game.
ANALYSIS OF THE ERROR IN PERCEPTION OF TIME INTERVALS
B. I. Tsoukanov
In the author's analysis of errors made in reproduction, scaling, and estimation of time intervals by human subjects two systems of measurements of time typical of man have been revealed. The first one is supported by the "biological clock" mechanism and measures time by means of dividing it into a continuous series of "immediate presents" which in an average subject equal 0.88 sec. The second system in based on available concepts and speech constructs which are used in the estimation of subjective time. The accuracy of estimations and measurements is a direct function of agreement between the subjective unit of time and the astronomical time unit of I sec. Ability to take into account subjective errors in perception of time is of large importance for efficient execution of a number of applied tasks.
A PILOT PSYCHOGENETICAL STUDY OF INTELLECTUAL ACTIVITY
D. B. Bogoyavlenskaya, I. A. Sousokolova
In order to prove a hypothesis about the structure of intellectual activity (IA) it has been decided to study the interplay between genetical and environmental factors in the development of inter-individual differences in IA. Employment of the most up-to-date analytical tool used in genetics — multidimensional genetical approach enabled the authors to estimate basic components of the phenotypical variance of features; results point to the predominantly environmental determination of IA.
A PROCEDURE BASED ON CHANGES IN THE MASKING PATTERN AS A FACTOR OF PERCEPTION
V. M. Krol, Ye. I. Bondar
Results of psychophysical experiments devoted to the study of temporal characteristics of perception of simple geometrical figures (grids made of horizontal lines and stripes) are presented. Test figures have been presented tachistoscopically with inverse masking. Four series of experiments show that changes in conditions of perception produced by alternations of masking figures result in changed temporal characteristics of perception.
A COMPLEX OF EQUIPMENT FOR PSYCHOPHYSIOLQGICAL STUDY OF VISUAL PERCEPTION
A. I. Nazarov
A complex of equipment designed in the laboratory of perception of the Moscow State university's department of psychology is taken in the article as an illustration of an ideology recommended for use in design and creation of special-purpose and problem-oriented computerized systems for conduction of a wide variety of studies of psychological and psychophysiological problems.