THEMATIC REVIEW OF DISSERTATIONS ON PSYCHOLOGY DEFENDED IN 1981 — 1984
A.A. Bodaliov, V. M. Melnikov
The authors provide analytical review of dissertation studies on psychology defended in the period of 1981 — 1984.
THE PROBLEM OF CORRELATION OF THE DEVELOPMENTAL AND OF THE INDIVIDUAL IN ABILITIES OF SCHOOIXHILDREN
N. S. Leites
General mental abilities have been considered in the differential-psychological plane. It is argued that age peculiarities are the internal conditions, the prerequisites, of the development of abilities. Particular meaning of the heterogeny in the age development of mind is presented on the example of children with early mental spurts. The author assumes that individual aspects of abilities do not appeal right away and in a complete form, but only after having proceeded through certain developmental stages. It is shown that understanding of peculiarities of mental abilities in childhood requires proper understanding of relations between the developmental and individual factors.
TEMPERAMENT IN THE STRUCTURE OF MANS'S INDIVIDUAL PROPERTIES
V. M. Rousalov
Present-day views on the concept of temperament have been theoretically reviewed. Its specific features distinguishing it from such close psychological concepts as character and personality are presented. Some biological bases of temperament are discussed, and criteria by which a psychological phenomenon should be regarded as pertaining to temperament are given. A new approach to the problem of temperament formation is formulated where it is said that temperament is being developed in the process of generalization of psychophysiological properties underlying psychological activities which goes on indepedently of specific motives, goals, etc. and which is made possible because of the stable nature of all biological structures (individual-neurophysiologic included) involved in such activities. It is shown that temperament does not exist either before or after activity — it is developed in the very process of activity.
CLASSIFICATION OF MENTAL REPRESENTATIONS IN THE LIGHT OF THE SYSTEMS APPROACH
A.A. Gostev, V. F. Roubakhin
An attempt to sort out the representational phenomenology on the basis of the systems approach has been made. Corresponding requirements to the study of mental images are outlined. Different types of images are understood as components of a dynamic mental representation system, which perform specific regulatory functions in man's behavior. Basic types of mental representations are briefly described.
SPECIFICITY OF LEARNING MOTIVATION IN YOUNGER SCHOOLCHILDREN
M. V. Matiukhina
Preceding from the concept of motivation as a multi-level system the author has been able to reveal the most and the least comprehended motives and to better distinguish the really active and the only known ones in the motivational system of younger schoolchildren. It has been found out that some poorly comprehended motives possess considerable driving potential for inducing learning. On the contrary some well comprehended motives are at rest, and special efforts are required to make them operative. The goals of the learning activity can acquire significant motivational force if they are made accepted by the child.
CULTIVATION OF MORAL BEHAVIOR IN ADOLESCENTS
L. S. Sapozhnikova
Ability of VI-VIII grade pupils to consciously control their behavior in accordance with personally meaningful rules has been tested. Different factors interfering with the ability are described in some details, and their correlations with other abilities are shown. Some recommendations as to how the adolescents can be helped to master the ability for self-control are presented.
ON THE ABILITY TO LEARN IN ADULTS
Some empirical studies performed along the lines of the concept of the life-long learning are presented and discussed. The following factors have been found to predominantly influence the ability for learning in adults: the actual level of personality development, socially predetermined prerequisites of learning, properties of personality correlated with motivation and tolerance for psychological loads, biological age-bound evolutionary and involutionary processes, peculiarities of the nervous system functioning under normal conditions. Life-long learning ensures adequate adaptation for changing environment provides for compensatory processes and helps the old and ill people to maintain social competence.
CRITERIA OF THE FINALITY OF THE NOTION OF SIZE IN YOUNGER SCHOOLCHILDREN
M. A. Semionova
Finality of some theoretical notions is suggested to be tested by the developmental state of the following three characteristics of them systemic complexity, level of generalization, object-bound ness Logical psychological analysis of the notion of size has been performed with the view to reveal the genetically primary relation from which the constitution of the notion starts, as well as the operations instrumental in establishing this relation A diagnostical procedure is described for estimation of the state of the notion of size in younger schoolchildren
SOME MECHANISMS OF SELE-REGULATION IN LEARNING THE PROPER RATE OF A PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITY
G. S. Bedniy
The process of development of the sense of rate in performing professional tasks has been studied in the context of vocational training. Corresponding roles of mechanisms of self-regulation and of chosen strategies of acquisition of the given rates are discussed It is argued that acquisition of the rate must not be reduced to gradual acceleration of performance — it requires a complex reorganization of the total temporal structure of activity
IMPROVEMENT OF VOCATIONAL ORIENTATION AND OF SELECTION OF YOUTH FOR WORKING JOBS
A. S. Yegorov, V. Ye. Gavrilov
Two urgent problems of vocational orientation are considered its organization and, as a logical consequence, psychological provision for the vocational orientation work. Some measures are suggested instrumental in organization in this country of the professional guidance service (at the stage of adaptation to a particular job as well) required by the implementation of the school reform laws. The authors suggest also a new, modular approach to the psychological study of professions in the context of professional orientation and adaptation of youth.
EFFECT OF CHARACTEROLOGICAL PROPERTIES ON THE DYNAMICS OF MAN'S PROFESSIONAL SELF-DETERMINATION
T. V. Koudriavtsev, A. V. Soukhariev
The paper presents results of a study of the effect of man's characterological properties on some indices of the dynamics of professional self determination level of professional intentions, coordination between the intentions and interests, progress in vocational studies. Regularities in the manifestation of the effect revealed in the study present obvious theoretical interest due to the acute deficiency of studies of the total picture of the interplay of different factors operative in man's professional self-determination. The study established also a correlation between some professional interests and characterological properties. The results obtained can be of use to educators engaged in development of vocational interests, dispositions, and intentions, as well as to guidance counselors.
DEVELOPMENT OF THE ABILITY TO PREDICT PEDAGOGICAL PHENOMENA IN STUDENTS OF PEDAGOGICAL INSTITUTES
L. A. Regoush
An experimental study has been performed which confirms the hypothesis that the ability to predict pedagogical phenomena depends on the level of development of speech thinking processes (which constitute the structure of the ability) and on the state of corresponding knowledge. Dynamics of the development of the above processes and knowledge during the time of learning in the high school as well as the dynamics of the studied ability are described.
MAN'S LIFE AS A PSYCHOLOGICAL PROBLEM
N. A. Loginova
The place of biographical data in contemporary psychology is discussed. Such notions as "life story", "character", "talent", "experience" are analyzed, and a conclusion is made that they all refer to biographical phenomena. Life, like onto genesis, is a form of individual psychological development regulated by a personality s most integral formations — character, talent. Attention is given to the biographical experiences within which there take form some life-important, destiny determining decisions. It is argued by the author that the sphere of life experiences must and can be scientifically studied, and that the biographical method is of special importance at that.
COMMUNICATION AND THE PROBLEM OF INTERIORIZATION
G. A. Kovaliov, L. A. Radzikhovskiy
Interiorization is the process of development of main social mechanisms of man's consciousness. However the nowadays psychology can not tell us how it is actually going on in ontogenesis Specificity of the process consists in the fact that social mechanisms of consciousness (and the very function of signification in particular) take shape in the process of interaction, communication, dialogue between an infant, with his not yet fully developed consciousness, and an adult (adults). Interiorization becomes a specific (and initial for all subsequent) type of communication. What makes it so specific is that the infant with his too-far-from-mature mind is somehow capable to acquire the very structure of dialogical relations. This structure becomes so far the generative, nuclear for the function of signification, for all conscious psychological processes.
PLACE OF P.P. BLONSKIY IN THE HISTORY OF PSYCHOLOGOY
P. P. Blonskiy's opinions concerning solution of global teaching and educational problems — still urgent nowadays — are considered. The author presents also the principles introduced by in order to deal with those problems: the principle of development, the principle of comprehensive study of a child, the principle of humanistic attitude to the developing personality, the idea of the working polytechnic school, his insistence on synthesis of pedagogical and psychological approaches in educational work. Examples of effective use of psychological data in school are cited.
THE PROBLEM OF ACTIVITY OF A DEVELOPING PERSON IN G. S. KOSTIUK'S STUDIES
L. N. Prokolienko
G. S. Kostiuk made a significant contribution to the study of the problem of determination of activity of personality and of the role of a subject's activity in his psychological development. Activity was studied by Kostiuk in the unity of its meaningful, operational, and motivational aspects, as a system of processes related to solution of cognitive and practical tasks. He understood psychological development as a qualitative and structural improvement of mental activity forced forward by internal contradictions. When stressing that development of an individual is to a large extent determined by his social environment, Kostiuk indicated that in the long run it is determined by the content and manner of his activity in this environment. Educational efforts devoted to promotion of such activity and of multifarious relations between the individual and his environment must contribute also to resolution of inner conflicts within his personality and at the same time to provoke new ones necessary for its further development.
MULTI-DIMENSIONAL SCALING OF CONFIGURATIONS OF SYMBOLS
Ye. N. Sokolov, Tch. A. Izmailov, V. L. Zavgorodnaya
Multi-dimensional scaling have been used to analyze the data on discrimination between configurative features of symbols (Russian letters, Arabic letters, some artificial signs) with the view to establish the minimal number of features needed to a man for discrimination. Interpretative analysis of the obtained structures of the subjective sign discrimination space reveals three configurative features determining the discrimination: the size of angles between lines composing the configuration, presence of local closed figures in the configuration, visual complexity of the configuration measured by the number of angle-producing lines. A hypothesis is forwarded that in man's visual system there exist gradual predetector neurons responsible for detection of basal features of configurations.
EFFECT OF INDIVIDUAL-PSYCHOLOGICAL DIFFERENCES ON THE PROCESS OF PROBLEM-SOLVING
I. A. Vasiliev, J. Kuhl
Two independent motivational factors: type of the achievement motivation and the degree of involvement into the task — were shown to influence, though in different ways, the problem-solving activity (particularly the level of planning complexity). Results of the study prove that task involvement correlates with inner cognitive motivation or, in broader terms, that motivational and cognitive factor is closely intertwined in problem-solving.
PERCEPTION OF THE SPEED OF MOVEMENT IN THE PROCESS OF PERCEPTION OF THE OBJECTS' FORM
A. I. Mirakian, V. I. Panov
Proceeding from the idea of polyfunctionality of the immediate sensual reflection and from some ideas concerning the functional scope of movement perception the authors analyze perception of objects' movement and speed without any physical concept of motion as the logical basis of their analysis. For them perception of movement is a polyfunctional process centered on the process of form-formation which assures the opportunity for immediate-sensual detection of both the speed and the form of a moving object. The experimentally obtained data are used to set forth a hypothesis that an object's perceived speed is a function of the time needed for reconstruction of its form.
ANALYSIS OF VISUAL STIMULI AND OF INVOLUNTARY MEMORIZATION OF THEM
N. P. Lokalova
It has been experimentally shown that secondary or memory trace left by a stimulus is, unlike the primary or physiological trace, a result of analytical-synthetical activities of different levels of complexity, and does not depend on physical properties of the stimulus. It is assumed that the degree of dependence/independence of the trace from external parameters of the sensorial stimulus can indicate the depth of procession of the afferent flow.
ABOUT ONE PROCEDURE OF ADAPTATION OF A LEARNING ABILITY TEST
G. N. Dosmayeva, A. G. Liders
The article is basically a translation into Russian of a test designated in the title.