РЕЗЮМЕ НА АНГЛИЙСКОМ ЯЗЫКЕ
THE PROBLEM OF COMMON ACTIVITY IN PSYCHOLOGY OF MANAGEMENT
A. V. Filippov, G. L. Ilyin
Basic issues and theoretical problems specific to psychology of management as a new branch of psychology are outlined. Connections between common activity, considered the main category in psychology of management, and individual activities, as well as mechanisms of control over individual activities included into the structure of a common activity are analyzed. Principal types of common activity are presented with the view to reveal specific functions of leaders and establish a unit of analysis of the managerial activity.
PSYCHOLOGICAL PROBLEMS OF LABOUR EDUCATION AND VOCATIONAL ORIENTATION
B. B. Kossov
Psychological problems of labour education and vocational orientation of schoolchildren are discussed within the framework of the concept of life style. Life style is described as a stable system of modes of the life activity of an individual which develops through interaction of his personal qualities with objective requirements to particular life activities. The concept is applied to the study of such problems as correlation of labour education and learning activity, psychological testing of individual life styles, psychological taxonomies of schoolchildren developing under different conditions of labour education ad vocational orientation work. Some psychological criteria of labour educatedness are suggested which can be used to scale corresponding processes. The concept has been further confirmed in an experimental validation of a multi-dimensional procedure for checking the life style in senior schoolchildren (corresponding results are presented).
CONCERNING THE STRUCTURE OF AN INDIVIDUAL WORKING STYLE
M. P. Shchukin
The working style of an individual is described as a system of interconnected habits of work pertaining to the specificity of orientational and performing operations, to the choice of tasks and of operational situations, organization of the working place, preparation for work, attitude to the job requirements. Basic mechanisms underlying the system are those of adaptation, compensation, and correction. Structural peculiarities of the habits are determined by properties belonging to different levels of the personality, neurodynamical properties and those of self being the most influential. In their turn these two levels are linked together by affective responses, self-estimations and attitudes.
PSYCHOLOGICAL CONDITIONS OF DEVELOPMENT OF THE IDEA OF INVARIANCE OF QUANTITY IN SIX-YEAR-OLD CHILDREN
I. K. Kechakmadze
Ability to perform tests on invariance of quantity is considered by some psychologists to be a criterion of the child's readiness for school. The purpose of the author's experiment was to establish the state of the corresponding concept in six- and seven-year-old children and then to study the effect of regular teaching on the ability of six-year-old children to comprehend the invariance of quantity. At the beginning of their school education both groups of children are at the same level, and their mental abilities and intelligence develop at the same rate during the first year as far as comprehension of the invariance of quantity is concerned. However by the end of the first year 50 % of the children who attended the preparatory classes (two years of studying there) successfully performed the test while in those who had not studied in the preparatory class only 35,5 % were successful.
ROLE OF SOCIAL- EXPERIENCE IN THE PLAY OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN
E. M. Gasparova
Results of an experimental study of playing activity of 2—3 year old children are reported. It has been shown that at this age children turn to games based on a plot and a distribution of roles; they are also capable of representing real-life social relations in the activities with toys. An age-specific procedure is suggested to test the developmental level of the play activity (the material used in it helps to form in a child the ability to actualize in an individual game his social experience).
COMMUNICATION BETWEEN THE MONITORING TEACHER AND A CORRESPONDING COLLECTIVE OF SENIOR SCHOOLCHILDREN
R. L. Kritchevsky, N. I. Kmit'
Basic lines in the study of the problem of interaction between a teacher and pupils are analyzed. An aspect of the problem concerning the relations between a teacher and a collective of senior schoolchildren he tutors has been particularly attended. Three factors determining efficiency of the tutor have been revealed: the degree of his engagement in the life of the class, adequate understanding of the structure of the latter, the tutor's age. Satisfaction of individual
pupils with the membership in the class collective is described as a function of the above factors. Strategic issues in the problem studied are discussed.
PSYCHOLOGY IN REALIZATION OF COMPLEX PURPOSIVE PROGRAMMES
I. V. Dubrovina, B. S. Kruglov
Elaboration of urgent problems of teaching and education by means of complex single-purpose programs is a productive form of introduction of theoretical psychology into practice. A complex study of the effect of advanced programs on psychological development of the personality in schoolchildren has been performed. It is shown that advanced programs facilitate development of particular intellectual skills and habits while being somewhat inefficient in relation to the long-term meaningful verbal memory. Insufficient development of the ability to work independently, low learning and cognitive motivation have been also observed. Some recommendations are given showing how psychological data can help teachers to reduce corresponding general and learning overload of pupils and to overcome other undesirable effects.
SPECIFICITY OF VOCATIONAL CONSULTATION OF ADOLESCENTS
M. S. Valitov
Intensification of self-estimation and increased role of such estimations in the development of personality in adolescents, acquisition of norms and motives of interpersonal communication at this age, as well as general and active improvement of the ability to communicate make it possible to assume that vocational consultation is possible and advisable as early as in the VI-th form. The assumption has been experimentally confirmed. Six-form pupils however prefer to deal with a consultant not individually but in groups of two and three. Vocational consultation at this age level must not be restricted therefore to individual forms and methods.
DEVELOPMENT OF SELF-CONTROL BY MEANS OF A TEXTBOOK
G. G. Granik, L. A. Kontsevaya, S. M. Bondarenko
Structural components of textbooks used by schoolchildren as means of self-control have been first critically analyzed and then used by the authors in an experimental attempt to promote development of the corresponding skill. A new structural component — "answer" has been suggested and introduced1 in order to implement control over the development. The difficulty of using answers is to be gradually increased. Proper succession of introduction of means of self-control, which also contribute to development of the corresponding skill in schoolchildren, is given. Presence of such means in a textbook makes its structure more flexible and efficient.
DIAGNOSIS OF INDIVIDUAL-PSYCHOLOGICAL DIFFERENCES IN LEARNING
M. K. Akimova, К. М. Gurevich, V. G. Zarkhin
Different efficiency of learning is often explained by individual-psychological variations of abilities. At that psychologists usually mean not the ability as such but its genetic predecessor — endowment. However results of testing only rarely reveal extraordinary endowments in people. More often tests do not reveal any natural endowment at all; rather they indicate the level of development of an ability. If an experimental study is performed "from an endowment to the ability", then — provided we possess crucial data about the endowment — it would be possible to foresee its manifestations in learning or professional activities. A model of such study can be compiled on the basis of the theory of properties of the nervous system.
PSYCHOLOGICAL DESCRIPTION OF MORAL IDEALS IN SCHOOLCHILDREN
N. I. Sudakov
Content, structure, functions, systemic relations, and factors influencing development of moral ideals have been studied with the view to suggest recommendations concerning proper education of schoolchildren in correspondence with the moral ideals of Communism. An experiment is reported which proves the author's preliminary models and provides the data which can be used in the practical work of teachers.
SOLUTION OF PROBLEMS BY STUDENTS AS A MEANS OF TEACHING PSYCHOLOGY
A. I. Klimenko
The author shares his experience of using different types of problems in all kinds of academic work with students: lectures, seminars, group and individual consultations, etc. Requirements to the problems are provided in order they might stimulate cognitive activity of students and create proper motivation.
THE PROBLEM OF POLYMOTIVATED BEHAVIOR
I. V. Imedadze
The principle of one-to-one correspondence between motive and activity (an activity can have but one underlying motivation) is argued. It follows from the principle that the phenomenon of polymotivation means that there develop simultaneously several activities. Each of them, in its turn, may be provoked by a number of needs which combine in a number of ways. Within a single activity all these components are united by the motive defined as a subjective value of this particular activity. The value represents meaningful attitude of the person to his needs and to the situation of their realization.
"THE UNCONSCIOUS OR THE SET": A NON-EXISTENT DILEMMA
A. S. Prangishvili, F. V. Bassin, P. B. Shoshin
The authors reply to a polemic article by V.V. Grigolava "The unconscious and the set" (see "Voprosy psychologii", 1984, no. 3, pp. 145—150) where those concepts have been treated as mutually exclusive and the unconscious, given the unquestionable scientific value of the set, finally called "illegitimate" as a psychological category. It is argued in the present paper that the relationship between the two concepts is not that of rivalry. On the contrary, incorporation of them into a single conceptual system is highly promising. Grigolava's final statement, dismissing the unconscious as a mere "fiction", is shown to be fallacious.
INTENSITY AND ATTRACTIVENESS AS PARAMETERS OF COMMON LEARNING ACTIVITY
A. A. Rean
Particular ways of realization of common activity of the teacher and pupils in learning are considered in terms of two parameters: "intensity" and "attractiveness". Intensity of mental activity of students has been experimentally tested in problem situations and under conditions of repetitive work. Some correlations between attractiveness of particular modes of learning and the degree of intensity they provoke in students have been established.
PERCEPTION OF ART AND ARTISTIC BEHAVIOR IN SENIOR SCHOOLCHILDREN
V. D. Khan-Magomedova
Proper correlation between perception of pieces of art and practical participation in production of them in the system of artistic education can — as has been shown in an experiment — significantly determine not only the ability for creative work but the development of a schoolchild's personality as a whole. Whenever there is a gap between the theory and practice, when art is taught in the absence of critical means of assessment and without proper account of the age specificity of perception and cognition, there is a serious danger of appearance of egocentricity, of peremptory judgments, of inadequate development of a number of ethical notions.
LEVELS OF MAN'S MEMORY AND THEIR PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS
S. A. Izyumova
It is assumed in the paper that "higher" and "lower" levels of memory are realized by means of different mechanisms. The lower levels correlate positively with the inertness of the brain's back structures responsible for slow decay of memory traces. High lability of frontal structures of the brain correlate; positively with high efficiency of the memory's meaning levels.
CONSTRUCTION OF BIPOLAR AND UNIPOLAR SCALES FOR DIFFERENTIAL ESTIMATION OF PERSONALITY QUALITIES IN OTHERS
I. G. Dubov, L. M. Smirnov
Factor analysis tends to reduce to a minimum the number of dimensions used to describe the personality of the other. It can not be used therefore whenever it is needed to quantitatively analyze the whole scope of perception of a particular dimension of the personality. In the author's experiment a theory of fuzzy sets has been used for description of subjective opinions. As a result a set of 70 adjectives pertaining to "flexibility" as a personality quality have been broken into II clusters presenting different aspects of the corresponding notion.
EFFECT OF DEVELOPMENT OF THE SYMBOLIC FUNCTION OF THINKING AS MANIFESTED IN INDICES OF INTERHEMISPHERIC ASYMMETRY
A. A. Ibatullina
Changes in inter-hemispheric functional asymmetry, estimated by indices of induced activity, as a result of stimulatory teaching (training of the symbolic function) have been studied in 2-year-old children. Statistically significant increase in the asymmetry has been observed in central and parietal areas of the cortex. Possible causes and mechanisms of the phenomenon are considered. A conclusion is made that cognitive analysis and involuntary attention improve in the process of development of the symbolic function.
A DEVICE FOR THE STUDY OF THE MODE OF CONCEPT FORMATION
E. S. Rapatsevich
Two modifications of an electronic device which allow the experimenter to follow the process of conceptualization by a subject of a scientific-empirical event are described. The range of situations where the device can be applied is given. Some algorithms of teaching the operations of comparison and classification and of establishing cause-effect relations are presented.
CONCERNING P.I. ZINCHENKO'S CONTRIBUTION TO PSYCHOLOGY OF MEMORY
G. K. Sereda
Basic points of P.I. Zinchenko's experimental-theoretical study of involuntary memorization started in mid-thirties, as well as the general historical context of his work are presented.