РЕЗЮМЕ НА АНГЛИЙСКОМ ЯЗЫКЕ
PROBLEMS OF THE CONTENTS AND METHODS OF TEACHING IN THE LIGHT OF THE SCHOOL REFORM
V. M. Monakhov
Main methodological problems which are to be solved in order to implement the reform of the general and vocational school are outlined. Basic lines of improvement of school curricula, programs and textbooks are discussed, as well as some measures directed at correction of overload of schoolchildren. A concept of "school subjects as a system" is introduced, and an attempt is made to sketch the contents of particular subjects which comprise it.
ACTIVITY, ACT, AND THE PSYCHOLOGICAL AS A PROCESS
A. V. Brushlinsky
Genesis of the traditional scheme dividing the human activity into acts, operations, and deeds correlated with goals and motives is for the first time documentally substantiated. It is shown that the scheme first elaborated in 30-40-ies by S.L. Rubinstein and in 40-50-ies by A.N. Leontiev, was later significantly transformed on the basis of the theory of the psychological as a process developed by S.L. Rubinstein and his pupils. In that theory psychological aspects of the activity and its components (acts, motives, etc.) acquire meaning as far as we can represent the psychological as a regulatory process mediating the interaction between a man and his world. Only in a such process — ever continuous (non-disjunctive) — there form its disjunctive components (mental acts and operations, all kinds of corresponding products, etc.). The issue of correlation between the social and the individual in this process is discussed in the context of critical analysis of M. M. Bakhtin's theory.
THE PRINCIPLE OF PROBLEM LEARNING
M. I. Makhmutov
Problem learning represented as a didactical principle and a didactical category is systemically analyzed. Practical rules and recommendations concerning its use in the general system of teaching are outlined. Problem learning is assumed to be the corner-stone notion in the general theory of learning.
DEVELOPMENT OF COGNITIVE ACTIVITY IN PUPILS ' OF A PRIMARY SCHOOL
Sh. A. Amonashvili
Theoretical and structural meaning of the term "schoolchild's cognitive activity" is considered with the view to demonstrate proper pedagogical goals and strategies to be pursued in its development. Some practical recommendations to teachers based on the author's 20 years experience of experimental work in a classroom are given.
PERSONALITY FACTORS IN THE PROCESS OF DEVELOPMENT OF COGNITIVE ACTIVITY IN SCHOOLCHILDREN
Yu. N. Kulyutkin
When a pupil masters his own learning behavior he masters functions and means (motivational, regulatory, etc.) used by his teacher in order to control the process of learning. The pupil therefore directs the recaptured means at himself and appears at the same time as a "I am a pupil" and a "I am a teacher". The most favourable conditions for this are provided by a common activity in a group of classmates which permits to share functional positions between different personalities.
PSYCHOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF PROBLEM LEARNING AND DEVELOPMENT OF COGNITIVE ACTIVITY IN ADULT STUDENTS
G. S. Sukhobskaya
General structure of problem solving by adults is described with particular accent on peculiarities of reflexive thinking and communication
under such conditions. Some recommendations are given to teachers as to how achieve different pedagogical aims with the help of the method.
PERSONAL MEANING OF STUDYING A FOREIGN LANGUAGE IN FUTURE TEACHERS
R. P. Milrud
Personal meaning of studying of foreign language is presented as a psychological structure which develops in the process of preparation for a pedagogical career. Sometimes, as it has been shown, it is centered around the need to master the ability to speak and not the ability to pass it to others. In such cases development of the communicatory-educational function in the future teachers of a foreign language is impeded. Provision of wider practical experience in the process of professional preparation can help to turn the student into an active subject of his professional activity and thus to develop in him adequate attitude to what he is being taught in a high school.
PSYCHOLOGICAL-PEDAGOGICAL FACTORS OF DEVELOPMENT OF THE TEACHER'S PERSONALITY IN PEDAGOGICAL INSTITUTES
V. A. Piatin
A number of important factors which both directly and indirectly influence the quality of preparation of teachers are considered with the view to increase the quality. Particular attention is paid to the professiographic profiles of the teachers' job, to the professionalization of social and special academic subjects, and to improvement of the methodological equipment of teachers.
MY PEDAGOGICAL SUCCESSES AND GRIEFS
R. S. Ovsiyevskaya
The author analyses one's own practical experience with the view to show ever important role of a teacher in the classroom. Contemporary school, being an all-year-round educational center, requires from a teacher not only the ability to teach particular subjects but also the ability to create individual personalities. And it can be achieved only by means of adequate educational and teaching techniques based first of all on the up-to-date psychological data.
ON THE IMPORTANCE OF AGE AND PSYCHOLOGICAL PECULIARITIES IN TEACHING OF CHILDREN
P. N. Chernov
Teacher's educational success depends on his ability to find an individual approach to pupils, especially to the backward ones. At that it is necessary to take into account the age dynamics of interests, of attitudes to learning and to productive work. Purposeful and systematic work of the teachers' collective can significantly influence corresponding processes.
ON PSYCHOLOGICAL PREPARATION FOR PRODUCTIVE LABOUR
A. A. Smirnov
The centerpiece of the article is the idea that preparation for productive labour should occupy an entirely special position in the educational work with the youth because of the central place of the labour in the system of human activities. Preparation for it is a total process encompassing the whole life of a student in all its aspects. It must determine the whole organization of his every-day life, the general atmosphere of his development. Work at school, physical work in a workshop and practical work in laboratories, domestic work, all kinds of extracurricular work, different forms of communication — all these can and must serve the task of psychological preparation of the youth for productive labour.
OSCILLATORY CHANGES IN ATTENTION AS A LAW OF THE BRAIN'S FUNCTIONING
S A. Netopina
Attention has been studied by means of a proof-reading test in 46 schoolchildren during 4 years (627 measurements have been taken). A certain pendulum-type regularity in the dynamics of attention during a school day has been established. Any single measurement must be regarded as an averaging indicator of the individual bio-sociorythm, which is to be taken into account in estimation of mental efficiency by means of a proof-reading technique.
DEVELOPMENT OF REFLEXIVE ACTS IN PRODUCTIVE THINKING ACTIVITY
A. Ya. Bolshunov, V. A. Molchanov, N. M. Trofimov
Dynamics of reflexive operations within thinking activity is theoretically considered. It has been assumed that actual-genesis of comprehension
of one's own thinking activity can be divided into three stages differing in the degree of explication of a meaningful intention in products of testing behavior. At the first stage reflexive thinking takes form of the estimation and sanctioning. Further, as there form goals, reflexivity turns into a means of control over the goal-achieving processes. At the third stage opportunities for the reflexive control drastically widen due to appearance of the eventual products. The assumption has been experimentally proved.
LEVELS OF DEVELOPMENT OF THE NEED FOR COGNITION
E. E. Vasyukova
Two levels of development of the need for cognition have been revealed by means of a method used for the study of actualized motives (the method is a modification of Nuttin's motivation induction procedure). At the first level one is satisfied with broad knowledge, here the problem-solving and acquisition of social experience require only elements of creativity. At the second level the knowledge is deep; it is characterized by independent setting and solving of problems, independent search for general regularities, as well as by systematization of the acquired data and formulation of objectively new concepts. Here the need for cognition gets intensified and turns into a preffered activity which results in modification of the general motivational structure. A conclusion is made that one level of the need's development is centered around acquisition of ready knowledge, while the other can be related to the need for elaboration of new knowledge.
EFFECTS OF FAILURE AND SUCCESS ON MAN'S FUNCTIONAL STATE
N. A. Baturin
Theoretical analysis of the problem made it possible to assume that specific changes in man's state must be studied as a function of quantitatively equal failures' and successes. Two experimental procedures have been elaborated in order to confirm the assumption. Registration of a variety of indexes of different forms of activation reveals that successes tend to be accompanied by increased activation of the vegetative nervous systems while failures rather produce activation of the central nervous system and appearance of subjective feelings.
STRUCTURE AND FORM OF THE INDIVIDUAL STYLE IN SPORTING ACTIVITIES
V. A. Tolochek
Individual style of behavior of sportsmen in single combat must not be determined exclusively in terms of tactics. The latter is just one manifestation of the individual style. Observation of the combat behavior of judo wrestlers makes it possible to distinguish in it its invariant part (structure) and all kinds of its situation-produced realizations (form). Depending on a particular structure possessed by a given sportsman his individual style is characterized either by high variability and the capacity for tactical reorganization (so-called basic style) or by a trend to look for standard conditions of behavior (compensatory style).
MEASURING OF INTELLECTUAL PRODUCTIVITY
L. T. Yampolsky
A test is described which makes it possible to study the logical-combinatory thinking independent of the educational level of subjects. Application of the test allows the author to suggest a two-dimensional model of intelligence.
A COMPLEX PROCEDURE FOR ESTIMATION OF COLOUR VISION IN PATIENTS WITH LOCAL LESIONS
E. A. Fedorovskaya
In addition to the traditional set of neuro-psychological methods of assessing the state of colour vision in patients with local lesions in the brain the author suggests to use the method of multi-dimensional scaling of the subjective perceptual colour space. The method makes it possible to quantitatively represent the disturbances of colour vision and interpret them in terms of the conceptual reflex arc.
A PROCEDURE FOR DESCRIPTION OF THE JOB OF NAVIGATORS IN CIVIL AVIATION
E. E. Artemyeva, L N. Luchko, Yu. K. Strelkov
A questionnaire is suggested encompassing different aspects of the navigator's job. Principles of the questionnaire organization, of primary procession of the data, and of reconstruction of the job structure are provided. General recommendations are illustrated by results of a comparative study of the job of civil aviation pilots.