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MAN AS THE SUBJECT OF WORK AND SOME PROBLEMS IN PSYCHOLOGY
Ye. A. Klimov
Because of the fact that psychologists pay too little attention to the study of man's real-life working activities—preferring to study them on laboratory-experimental models—our science is not yet able to equip applied psychologists and teachers with the information needed for adequate realization of the reform of the general and vocational school. Principal difficulties and obstacles (affective, cognitive, organizational) in the path of the psychological study of the real-life work as well as ways to overcome them are described. Some psychological features of man's work are also considered such as anticipation of socially valuable outcomes, knowledge of the necessity to achieve a socially-fixed goal, possession of the means of work, knowledge of explicit and implicit interpersonal relations in the sphere of production. It is underlined that work must not be regarded merely as production of material values, but also as production of information and behavior, which can be of use in serving other people, and of efforts which bring order into social processes.
DEVELOPMENT OF PERSONALITY FROM THE VIEWPOINT OF SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
A. V. Petrovsky
A new theory of personality development in ontogenesis is suggested. Proceeding from the unity, though not identity, of notions "individual" and "personality" the author refuses to consider "psychological development of an individual" and "development of an individual as a personality" as concepts fully coincident in their psychological characteristics. Development of a personality is determined not by the monopoly of a so-called "leading" activity specific for this or that age but by the activity-mediated form of interactions of the individual with his reference group. Basing on the theory of the activity mediation of inter-personal relations and of the personalization of individuals the author assumes that the personality develops within groups occupying hierarchical positions on the ontogenesis scale, while the type of the personality depends on the type and level of development of the group into which the personality is integrated. In any age period the personality passes through three microstages of development: adaptation, individualization, and integration. Three epochs of ascension of an individual to the state of social maturity—childhood, adolescence, youth—represent in their turn three macrophases of the personality development: adaptation, individualization, integration.
ROLE OF WORDS IN ABSTRACTION BY PRESCHOOLERS OF OBJECTS’ PROPERTIES
A. V. Atemasov
Efficiency of abstraction of such properties of objects as colour, form, and size, depending on the type of their designation with words has been studied. It is shown that the manner of designation is particularly important for abstraction of the size and less so for abstraction of the colour. The stronger physiologically is the property to be abstracted the less is the necessity to mark it by words in order to abstract from the object both the property itself and other properties belonging to neighbouring categories, and vice versa. It has been also established that the less integrated into the categorical structure of the object a property is the more important is the role of its verbal designation. Words are also needed when abstraction is to be performed in the absence of visual supports as compared with visually controlled operations.
SPECIFICITY OF COMMUNICATION BETWEEN GIRLS AND BOYS IN THE KINDERGARTEN
T. A. Repina
A technique specifically designed for the purpose has been used by the author for the study of communication and of interrelations in a group of 3—7 years old kindergarten children. The children as has been revealed tend to consolidate with age-mates of their own sex. The trend increases from the younger pre-school age to the senior age which results in appearance
of two substructures in the same collective—that of boys and that of girls. The study makes it possible to state that girls occupy slightly higher positions in the system of interpersonal relations in their group as compared with boys; at the same time they are evidently more selective in communication and are more steady in their devotions.
STUDY OF COGNITIVE STYLES IN A COMPUTER-BASED TEACHING SYSTEM
T. N. Brousentsova
The impulsivity—reflexivity cognitive style has been studied under conditions of computer-programmed instruction. Subjects—schoolchildren and university students—learned BASIC through a computer-based teaching system "Nastavnik". Some new data on impulsive and reflective learners was obtained. Some recommendations for the organization of computer-based instruction are proposed.
DEVELOPMENT OF CREATIVE ATTITUDE TO THE FUTURE JOB IN STUDENTS OF PEDAGOGICAL SCHOOLS
P. Ye. Yemelianov
Creative attitude to professional activities is the pledge of both personal and social efficiency of any worker. Some practical ways of developing creative attitude to the future job in students of pedagogical schools are presented.
PLACE OF THE OUT-SCHOOL STUDIES OF LITERATURE IN THE SYSTEM OF MORAL EDUCATION OF SCHOOLCHILDREN
L. Ya. Vilmane
Proper organization of the out-of-school literary studies can significantly contribute to the pedagogical efforts directed at the moral education of schoolchildren. Practical experience of this kind is described in some detail.
SOME EXPERIENCE OF LABOUR EDUCATION OF CHILDREN IN A RURAL SCHOOL AND WITHIN FAMILY
S. I. Dergatchiov
Extensive forms of organization of productive activity of schoolchildren of different ages in a rural school are described. It is shown also that labour education in a school cannot be fully efficient without proper help and cooperative participation of parents in preparation of their children for the socially useful and responsible work.
ON THE PROMOTION OF DILIGENCE
S. D. Shevtchenko
Diligence is not primarily possession of corresponding rational attitudes. First of all it is possession of the habit to work. The author discusses some principles of organization of school activities which can be operative in development in schoolchildren of the subjectively accepted desire to work.
PSYCHOGENIC FORMS OF SCHOOL DESADAPTATION
B. Ye. Kagan
By psychogenic forms of school desadaptation are understood a child's psychogenic responses, disturbances and personality developments which interfere with his objective and subjective status in the system of learning and impede the teaching-educational process. Some underlying factors are considered (particularly individual psychological characteristics, conditions of family upbringing, etc.) as well as clinical forms (responses to stress, neuroses, psychogenic personality developments) and principles of prevention and correction.
PECULIARITIES OF THE INTER-HEMISPHERIC INTERACTION IN ACQUISITION OF INFORMATION
V. F. Konovalov, N. A. Otmakhova
Analysis of EEG has been used in order to study sex differences in the inter-hemispheric interaction observed in adult subjects memorizing 3 kinds of information: words, music, numbers. In men the largest number of statistically significant changes in the EEG was elicited by the verbal task, while in women—by music and counting. There were some other sex differences in EEG-responses—particularly those concerning the intensity and asymmetry of responses in either hemisphere, and also concerning the character of changes in the energy and asymmetry of EEG produced by different types of information. Sexual differences were more expressed in the energy changes than in the asymmetry, at that they were more expressed in the right hemisphere and in the occipital areas (as compared with the central ones). Analysis of literature and of the presented data makes it possible to conclude that functional asymmetry of the hemispheres is more manifested in men as compared with women.
FUNCTIONAL ROLE OF THE TYPE OF TEMPERAMENT IN MAN'S INDIVIDUAL AND COMMON ACTIVITY
V. V. Belous
It has been established that different aspects of one and the same operator activity require different types of the temperament. Therefore in individual activities of higher levels different types of temperament are of equal value. Efficiency of performance of some elementary common activities can be described as a linear function of certain neurodynamic properties, and as a non-linear function of certain psycho-dynamic properties.
POPULATION-GENETICAL ANALYSIS OF SOME CHARACTERISTICS OF COLOUR PERCEPTION
K. B. Boulayeva, S. A. Isaitchev
Results are analyzed of an experimental study of genetic determinants of some characteristics of man's colour perception in isolated populations. It has been shown that the characteristics in question can be divided into quantitative ones with continuous distribution within population, and qualitative ones with discrete distribution. Genetic analysis of one qualitative characteristic (perception of pure green colour) has been performed on the assumption that it is bimodally determined by two co-dominant genes G1 and G2 localized in the X-chromosome. Some data on how the described characteristics differ in various populations are presented.
A PROCEDURE FOR DETERMINING THE STRUCTURE OF A GROUP BY MEANS OF A FORMALIZED ANALYSIS OF INTERPERSONAL CHOICES
A. S. Gorbatenko, Ò. Ì. Gorbatenko
An original method of establishing subgroups in a group is suggested. Main theoretical problems in recognition of the subgroups are analyzed. The classificatory algorithm is described in sufficient detail, and estimation of its accuracy is provided. A concrete example of application of the algorithm for establishing subgroups in a school class is given.
A DIALOGUE SYSTEM OF PREPARATION AND PRESENTATION OF VISUAL INFORMATION IN EXPERIMENTS WITH MEN
A. P. Koulaitchev, D. M. Ramendik, M. V. Slavoutskaya
A dialogue system is described which has been designed as an automatic means of preparation and conduction of experimental studies of problem-solving by men under conditions of visual presentation of information. Presentation of the task and performance of experimental behavior are realized by means of a display and standard computer terminals. Some examples are given in order to illustrate how the system can be used in human engineering studies.
SOME PROBLEMS IN THE THEORY OF ACTIVITY
O. A. Nikoulenko
The problem of the object of activity in A. N. Leontiev's psychological theory of activity is considered. It is shown that the essence of activity consists not in striving for the object which will satisfy the corresponding need, but in overcoming of the resistance which the subject meets on the way to need satisfaction. The principle that any activity is object-mediated is specified in the article in the following way: the principle consists not in the fact that the means of need satisfaction are objects, but in the fact that the resistance determines the object content of the activity (goals, tools, and means of need satisfaction chosen by the subject) and therefore assigns direction to the activity. The notion of the "image of resistance" is introduced as a basic constituent of the mental reflection of the world. The author also critically reviews some aspects of the theory concerning activity motivation and goal-setting.
STRUCTURE AND MOTIVATIONAL DYNAMICS OF ACTIVITY
B. I. Dodonov
It has been assumed by the author that behind any activity (regarded as a social phenomenon) one would find two sets of correlated motives—those of the society and those of individual actors. The latter are divided into two groups. The first comprises values which particular activities immediately pass to those who participate in them and to the society. The second comprises the most distant goals which in the long run determine personal and social aspects of man's activity. The paper shows how all these motives transform their structure and content under different social-historical conditions and how they motivate not only practical activities with objects but communication between those engaged in common activity as well. Communication is discussed as a specific motivational phenomenon which, on the one hand, unites individual participants into a collective subject of the activity and, on the other hand, takes them beyond the goals of the particular activity they are engaged in and introduces them into a wider context of the social life.
PERSONALITY NEEDS IN SOME PEDAGOGICAL THEORIES OF LEARNING MOTIVATION
S. P. Manoukian
The author raises objections to some educational theories which state that it is the need which forces one to act (i.e. serves as the behavior motivation). It is assumed in the article that needs themselves are generated and actualized by objects found in the external world.
URGENT TASKS BEFORS THE RESEARCHERS OF THE HISTORY OF EDUCATIONAL AND DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY IN RUSSIA
A. A. Nikolskaya
Necessity of systematic performance of historical-psychological research is substantiated. Achievements of the researchers in the field are briefly outlined. Main body of the article is dedicated to the history of the Russian educational and developmental psychology—its primary goals are analyzed, and successive views on its subject-matter and methodology are presented.