URGENT PROBLEMS OF INTRODUCTION OF EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS INTO EDUCATIONAL PRACTICE
S. O. Melik-Noubarov
Some issues concerning practical implementation in schools and in other educational institutions of data obtained in psychological-pedagogical science has been considered. The author analyzes the concept which forms the basis of the recently sanctioned by the Ministry of Education and practically implemented "Regulations concerning introduction and use of results of pedagogical studies in educational practice"; he also presents the procedure of presentation and of expert appraisal of the experimental research intended for introduction into educational practice, and discusses possible ways of application of pedagogical and psychological scientific data at different hierarchical levels—from the USSR Ministry of Education down to a particular school—with an emphasis on the role of the scientific-research establishment in the implementation process.
ISSUES IN PSYCHOLOGICAL PREPARATION OF THE YOUTH FOR WORK AND FOR SELECTION OF A PROFESSION
P. R. Atoutov, Ye. A. Klimov
Substantial improvement in labour education, professional orientation, and professional consultation of the youth can be expected only when highly-skilled psychologists will be engaged apart from the creative research as such also in compiling of all kinds of reference books: manuals, textbooks, practical guides, etc. In particular basic orientation in the world of professions requires preparation of a complete ensemble of concise descriptions of the total variety of jobs (an example of such description is presented). In its turn practical work of this type should be based on fundamental research concerning psychology of professions, theory and methods of consulting, and on theoretical integration of knowledge about different kinds of work.
TEACHER'S EDUCATIONAL SKILL AS A FACTOR IN DEVELOPMENT OF PUPILS' ABILITIES
N. V. Kouzmina
Educational skill is defined as a specific sensitivity to individual pedagogical requirements This sensitivity enables the teacher to read high educational results in the majority of pupils during a fixed time. Some typical feature: distinguishing skillful teachers has been revealed, and the author's point of view on the structure of the educational skill is represented. The latter has two levels: reflexive and projective. Three sorts of sensitivity characteristic of the reflexive level have been found out: sensitivity for objects, for measure, and for participation. Five sorts of sensitivity characterize the projective level: gnostic, design, constructive, communicative, and organizational. Specific character of the educational skill is illustrated by descriptions of activity of talented teachers capable of producing proper developments in the abilities of their pupils.
INTERPERSONAL RELATIONS IN DIFFICULT ADOLESCENTS
S. F. Oustimenko
Specificity of interpersonal relations between difficult adolescents has been revealed as a result of a comparative analysis of interpersonal relations typical of adolescents tending to run away from home and of those who do not belong to this category. Personality of adolescents of the first group is described, and some re-educational means are recommended. The data presented in the paper is of interest to those engaged in the study of juvenile delinquency, and may also be of use for the organization of educational work at school.
COMMUNICATION AND COGNITIVE ACTIVITY IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN
D. B. Godovikova
Cognitive activity of a child increases and undergoes qualitative transformation in the preschool age. Each level at that is characterized
by different objects: I—directly perceived features of things; II—relations between internal, hidden features and external features; III—completely internal features—ethical estimation concepts. The level of cognitive activity to be found in a particular preschool child is determined by the level of his communication with adults and age-mates. Transition to a higher level of communication with adults results in a higher level of cognitive activity, however at each level this influence is mediated by different processes.
DEVELOPMENT OF THE ABILITY TO PERCEIVE A PIECE OF ART AS A WHOLE
V. I. Eidlin
A formative experiment has been performed in order to reveal psychological factors deter-mining the process and the result of perception of a literary work in 4-th year schoolchildren. Correct perception is achieved through separation of primary "cells", or, in other words, of final units of the work which adequately reflect its artistic content. As a result of separation of such units and of combining them with corresponding pieces of the work there take place organization, grouping, and interenrichment of particular pieces and elements which, if inadequately perceived, would be comprehended separately, one after another, in a linear succession, i. e. as they follow each other in the text. Since the initial cells are invariant in different works of art they may be used as a basis for development of the independent ability to perceive the art. The data presented can be applied for improvement of teaching literature at school.
PERSONALITY AS A FACTOR IN THE OPTIMIZATION OF LEARNING
Yu. K. Babansky
Effect of a teacher's personality on his choice of instructional procedures in the optimal organization of the learning-educational process has been experimentally studied. Means and ways of developing corresponding personality qualities through self-education and application of a system of didactic exercizes are presented.
THE PROPER WAY OF TALKING WITH PARENTS ABOUT EDUCATION IN FAMILY
T. P. Gavrilova
Typical educational mistakes of parents are discussed at some length as well as correct distribution of functions between family and school, efficient forms of relations between teachers and parents, role of both sides in esthetical education of children, etc.
STRUCTURE OF A COURSE ON THE PSYCHOLOGY OF WORK SAFETY
V. I. Barabash
Psychology of work safety has been recently worked out and introduced into the curriculum in Leningrad Polytechnical Institute. The following topics are included into the content of the course: place of the psychology of safe work in the system of issues of work safety; psychological reliability of an operator (industrial psychological states, unusual psychological states, fatigue) in the man-machine system; etc. It is emphasized in the course that instruction in every profession must be combined with the study of psychological fundamentals, of safe work.
EFFECT OF THE GROUP SIZE ON THE EFFICIENCY OF COMMON COGNITIVE ACTIVITY
L. A. Karpenko
Learning efficiency of individual members of a training group has been studied as a function of the group size under real-life learning conditions. It is shown that in collective-type groups efficiency of learning increases up to a certain limit of the group size. It has been assumed that this fact must be explained by the activating influence of the group on its particular members. Further theoretical analysis of the assumption makes it possible to suggest a hypothesis that this activating effect is a result of the .specifically collective activity which provides conditions for generation and exchange of motives between the partners in common acts.
SOCIAL-PERCEPTUAL PROCESSES OF DECISION-MAKING IN GROUP
A. G. Kostinskaya
The degree of group polarization in making a decision concerning the difficulty of the task to be taken correlates negatively with the efficiency of the group. In its turn the polarization is a direct result of low ability for self-estimation in the group. The polarization also is positively connected with the ability to comprehend the structure and workings of the leadership in the group. Group efficiency in the decision-making is therefore a combined effect of integration of the described social-perceptual phenomena and of proper differentiation of roles in the group under such conditions.
PERCEPTION AND ESTIMATION OF TIME IN SCHOOLCHILDREN
A. I. Fedotchev
Electrographic reactions (GSR, EEG, ECG), the average school mark, and indices of reproduction and estimation of the 15-seconds interval
were measured in 61 subjects first when in the I-st form and second when in the IX-th form (i. e. with the interval of 8 years). No sex differences at both age levels have been registered, however the measure of stimulus reproduction changed in girls to a larger extend than in boys (the values of reproduction in the first and in the ninth form do not correlate).
SELF-ANALYSIS OF PERFORMANCE OF TECHNICAL OPERATIONS AS A MEANS OF OVERCOMING THE MONOTONY OF WORK
Ò. Â. Klimina
Thinking activity concerned with comprehension and transformation of individual methods of performance of technical operations has been studied in women engaged in the assembly of fountain-pens. Different types of the thinking activity are described in terms of their effect on the productivity of labour, quality of the products, on subjective criteria of the work content, and on the feeling of satisfaction with the work. Self-analytical thinking activity of the described type can be regarded therefore as a subjective means used in order to overcome the monotony of work and to increase its economic efficiency.
ROLE OF THE QUESTION IN THE STRUCTURE OF THINKING
N. B. Shoumakova
Role of questions in setting and solving of thinking problems has been studied. Psychological classification of questions used in thinking is suggested; and dynamics of using questions in the structure of looking for a solution is analyzed. The data obtained makes it possible to indicate two extreme types of the question-bound problem-solving structures. A hypothesis is set forth that the two types correlate with the individual thinking style, at that the stimulatory role of questions in provoking of creative activity is shown.
ORIENTING AND DEFENCE REACTIONS: DIFFERENCE, INDIVIDUAL VARIATION, DEPENDENCE OF HABITUATION ON THE STRENGTH OF REACTION
E. M. Routman, B. I. Kotchoubei, Yu. N. Shevariov
SGR, EP, ECG and winks accompanying repeated presentation of 80 and 105 db tones have been registered. 80 db tone provokes the orienting reaction while 105 db tone—the defence reaction. The latter is characterized by prolonged habituation in a number of measured indices. Existense of a compensatory psychophysiological mechanism is suggested the activity of which is a direct function of the strength of the defence reaction.
DYNAMICS OF THE FIELD OF VISION UNDER CONDITIONS OF STABILIZED PICTURE
V. I. Kapran
The term «functional fovea1» was suggested as a nomination of the mechanism of perception of stabilized pictures. It is supposed that by means of specific coordination of the eye's muscles particular parts of the stabilized stimulus occur in the center of attention and are thus separated by the observer as particular fragments of the whole picture. At that the size of fragments is accepted as the measure of the functional field of foveal perception. The fragments are minimal in the recognition task and they become larger in identification and in observing recognized pictures. Also fragments of rounded figures are lesser as compared with fragments of angled figures. In all kinds of tasks fragments become larger when the observed pictures are larger. However the size of fragments has an upper limit and is independent of the type of task and of the structural features of the picture.
BINOCULAR REPRODUCTIVE IMAGES UNDER CONDITIONS OF NON-TYPICAL INTERHEMISPHERIC RELATIONS (IN STUTTERERS)
V. V. Souvorova, M. A. Matova, Z. G. Tourovskaya
Binocular vision in subjects with non-typical interhemispheric relations and with non-typical lateralization of functions (adult stutterers) have been compared with the norm. Application of dioptic and fusional procedures reveals that in stutterers non-typical interhemispheric organization of speech is accompanied by disturbances in organization of visual functions as well — particularly by asymmetric insufficiency of the reproductive processes in binocular vision. It is assumed that the observed asymmetry points to the functional insufficiency of the right hemisphere.
A PROCERURE FOR THE STUDY OF SELF-ESTIMATION IN CHILDREN
G. A. Kliutchnikova
The procedure described in the paper has been intended for class managers and all kinds of school educators. Application of the procedure — which is in fact a portable modification of T. V. Dembo — S. Ya. Rubinstein's method — has made it possible for the author to make a number of conclusions concerning development of self-estimation in schoolchildren of different ages. School educators can use the procedure for preliminary
sorting out of children and separation of those who require individual approach.
URGENT PROBLEMS IN THE STUDY OF SECONDARY IMAGES
A. A. Gostev
Some urgent problems in the study of secondary images are discussed. A particular emphasis is made on the systems approach. Correspondingly basic concepts and classifications of secondary images are critically considered. The necessity to look for common mechanisms of generation of particular types of imagery phenomena, and to work out a multidimensional classification of properties of secondary images is underlined. Special attention is given to methods of studying secondary images and of measuring their particular dimensions. The problem of individual peculiarities of secondary images is also dealt with, and some possible ways of its further study are suggested.
DIRECTIONS AND GOALS IN THE SCIENTIFIC STUDY OF ABILITIES
A. A. Bodaliov
Theoretical status of the mentioned problem in different branches of the present-day psychology (particularly in general psychology, social and developmental psychology, educational and industrial psychology) has been analyzed. Basic trends in the study of abilities as well as critical issues and practical goals are outlined.
DECISION-MAKING AS AN ISSUE IN THE PSYCHOLOGY OF COGNITION
L. L. Gourova
Decision-making is regarded by the author as a complex psychological problem which must not be identified with traditional problem-solving issues. Specificity of the decision-making consists in the availability of a free choice and therefore with the necessity to take into account personality of the decision-maker. An experimental procedure called "semantical montage" is suggested which makes it possible to study how the decision-making processes are supported by the available intellectual mechanisms and by corresponding personality characteristics.
CHANGES IN THE CONTENT - OF WORK IN PARTICULAR WORKING PROFESSIONS
S. Ya. Batishev
Analysis of changes in the content of three working professions (turner's, fitter's and assembler's, and tractor driver's) from 20-ies till present days allows the author not only to represent some trends in the scientific-technical progress, but also to show how this progress requires development of a new professional structure in qualified labour.
BASIC CONDITIONS FOR INTERPERSONAL UNDERSTANDING IN COMMON ACTIVITY
V. V. Znakov
The article shows the interdependence of understanding by partners in a common activity of its purpose and of personal qualities of each other. Two general pre-requisites of such understanding are presented: mnemic, and goal-bound; and it is further shown how they are concretised in the process of interpersonal-comprehension.
ON REGULARITIES OF DEVELOPMENT OF SPEECH IN ONTOGENESIS
V. I. Beltiukov
Analysis of the data obtained in studies of acquisition by children of grammar and phonetics shows that there exists a biological program behind the process. The code of the latter differs from that of the social program: its units are triplet and not binary. Elements of the triplet set are hierarchically organized: two of them are products of the dichotomic split of the third one. In their turn they may give rise to another two by the same splitting mechanism in the process of further development. Consequently there appears a characteristic hierarchy in the form of a dichotomy or a tree. While relations between elements of the social program are of the "or — or" type, here we have relations of the "and — and" type. The biological program unfolds not from the particular to the general, as is the ease with the social program, but in the opposite direction from the general to the particular.