URGENT ISSUES IN DEVELOPMENTAL AND EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY
(to the VI-th Congress of the USSR Society of psychologists)
A. A. Bodaliov
The state of affairs in Soviet developmental and educational psychology has been reviewed at the VI Congress of the USSR Society of psychologists with particular interest to its practical role in development of the new man and in organization of his life in accordance with the principles of Communist morality. Among the most urgent the following issues have been mentioned. More attention should be given to the problem of age-long division into periods of the process of psychological development. The study of personality based on research of laws and mechanisms of such complicated psychological structures as values, needs, and interests, abilities and dispositions, character, etc., must be intensified. Psychologists should take more active part in development of psychological bases of educational work, in increasing efficiency of teaching and educational practices. To achieve these aims professional efforts of psychologists must be better coordinated, and provided with mechanisms of immediate check-up of their applicability (one such mechanism is the system of psychological consultation which is being developed recently on a widening scale).
RESEARCH CONNECTED WITH INTRODUCTION OF ELECTRONIC-COMPUTATIONAL ENGINEERING, MICROPROCESSOR ENGINEERING, AND PROGRAMMING INTO SCHOOL PRACTICE
S. G. Shapovalenko
A complex scientific-research program is suggested with the view to prepare all the parties concerned for efficient and smooth introduction of modern electronic technology into teaching practices at the mass school. Particular practical and theoretical tasks and goals are discussed, as well as technical means recommended for use in the classroom.
THE CONCEPT OF MEANING SYSTEMS IN EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOSEMANTICS
A. G. Shmeliov
The notion of meaning is conceptualized on the basis of the activity approach to description of psychological phenomena. Understanding of meaning in neo-behaviorism, cognitive psychology, and in the methodology of the activity approach are made explicit and compared. For the author meaning is a representational unit which performs in man's mind the function of representation of specific correspondences between objects, motives and intentional operations. When taken as an analytical unit the category of meaning makes it possible to describe in the same time plane and to interconnect two aspects of psychological analysis: representational and behavioral.
Realization of the systems approach in experimental psychosemantics results in transformation of the concept of isolated meanings into the concept of meaning systems, the latter being a hierarchical, dynamic and multidimensional entity open to influences from functional components of activity (motives, goals, operational and object contents, etc.).
MORAL DEVELOPMENT IN A PRE-SCHOOL CHILD
Ye. V. Subbotsky
The moral act is theoretically analyzed as a complex phenomenon, its form and content are abstracted, experimental methods of studying moral acts differing in form and contents are briefly presented, and an experimental phenomenon of dissociation of verbal and real behavior is described in sufficient detail. Three stages in ontogenetic development of moral behavior in schoolchildren have been revealed on the basis of empirical data. Ethnopsychological data have been used in order to show that the last of the revealed stages is a relatively recent historical development and signifies appearance of a new stage in cultural-historical development of the moral behavior.
SPECIFICITY OF MORAL REQUIREMENTS AND ESTIMATION OF AGE-PEERS IN PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN
S. G. Yakobson, R. A. Kurbanov
Study of 54 6-7 years old children has revealed that a child's objectivity in moral estimation of his age-peer is influenced by personal concern in results of the act of the latter. The same factor effects the content of claims to each other when a norm has been violated.
BEHAVIOR OF YOUNGER SCHOOLCHILDREN IN COLLECTIVE SCHOOL ACTIVITIES
G. A. Zukerman, N. E. Fokina
Observation of interactions between third-class schoolchildren engaged in common school work has revealed that shared operations demanding from the child to take into account positions of his co-actors, are directed not so much at the corresponding object as at the conditions and methods of performance. Common school work has revealed that shared operations demand favourable conditions for development in them of reflectivity — a major new psychological formation at this age period.
LEVELS OF UNDERSTANDING SENTENCES, AND WAYS TO REVEAL THEM
M. Ya. Mikulinskaya
Analysis of symbolic models is suggested by the author as an objective diagnostic method for establishing the level of understanding sentences and the scope of theoretical knowledge about the sentences and the ideas they contain. A training course delivered to children in Russian and Georgian schools proved highly efficient for developing the ability to profoundly understand sentences.
STUDY OF PSYCHOLOGICAL PREPAREDNESS
U. V. Uliyenkova
Early prediction of poor learning progress in six-year old children attending special correction groups in kindergartens is considered. Principles to be used in design of diagnostical procedures, as well as deficiency-specific methods of educational work with such children are described.
PSYCHOLOGICAL CORRECTION OF DEFECTIVE SELF-REGULATION IN RETARDED CHILDREN
Ability for self-regulation is assumed to be closely connected with development of speech. Some modifications in inter- and intrapsychological development of individuals with disturbed ability for speech communication are considered. An educational principle is underlined which states that interpsychological deficiences must be corrected by means of correction of interpersonal relations through activation of social functions within corresponding children's collectives. In order to improve capacity of a child for self-regulation the teacher must try to increase capacity for self-regulation of the collective in general.
PSYCHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF DIFFICULTIES IN LEARNING ACTIVITY OF SCHOOLCHILDREN
Non-clinical causes of poor progress in development of cognitive abilities and in learning activity of schoolchildren have been studied. It is assumed that retarded intellectual development and lagging behind at school is basically a result of initially defective system of communication with adults. Such communication causes deformation of the motivational sphere in the child and developes in him inadequate attitudes to learning situations (the latter are products of the mechanism of psychological defense activated in order to decrease the level of neuroticity). However positive changes in communication with such children may result in improved behavior, in elimination of defense mechanisms, and —finally — in increased level of intellectual development and better marks at school.
HOW SHOULD ONE TAKE COMPLAINTS OF THE KINDERGARTEN CHILDREN
A. G. Ruzskaya, L. N. Abramova
Psychological nature and types of complaints typical of preschool children are described. Concrete recommendations are given as to how adults should take and respond to children's complaints.
CONSTANCY AND FUNCTIONAL LABILITY OF PERCEPTION
A. I. Mirakian
Unlike traditional treatment of the constancy problem the constant/non-constant perception of values is regarded by the author as an immediate-sensual perceptual process consisting of successive microacts, which generate opposite anisotropic relations between compared values. Further transformations of these relations result either in constant or non-constant perception, as well as in perception of depth, of the inter-object distance, etc., — i.e. in the functional lability in perception of spatial relations between objects.
CONCERNING STRUCTURALLY OF TEXTS
G. A. Smirnov
Reduction of a text to a system of meanings in accordance with particular goals of communication is an important stage in its meaningful procession. Processes of analysis of substructures of the initial text by meanings and of their further stage-by-stage and level-by-level integration by categories have been experimentally revealed.
A PHENOMENON OF COMPENSATORY DISCRIMINATION
K. V. Bardin, T. P. Gorbachiova, V. A. Sadov, N. V. Tszen
It has been shown that whenever an observer finds it impossible to differentiate stimuli by loudness he can develop in himself an ability to differentiate them by certain complementary subjective features. Efficiency of performance at that significantly increases and reaches a statistically significant level as compared with the differentiation by loudness.
EFFECT OF THE METHOD OF INDICATION OF THE EVALUATION MARK BY A CONTROLLING-TEACHING DEVICE ON THE EFFECIENCY OF LEARNING
I. M. Starikov
Experimental data have been obtained which show that whenever a pupil working with a controlling-teaching device is provided with running indication of his marks, and therefore is capable of deducing how his particular actions influence the total result, efficiency of instruction is considerabley increased.
GROUP: PSYCHOLOGY AND ETYMOLOGY
A. I. Dontsov
An attempt has been made to show specificity of the psychological approach to the study of small social groups. Etymology and transformations of the meaning of the term "group" in main European languages in XVIII—XIX centuries is presented. A conclusion is made that study of mechanisms of generation, reproduction, and development of groups' psychological wholeness constitute primary goal of psychological analyses of social communities.
NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL STUDY OF THE VISUAL-PICTORIAL THINKING
T. Sh. Gagoshidze, Ye. D. Khomskaya
Brain mechanisms of the visual-pictorial thinking involved in performing tasks requiring mental manipulation of three-dimensional geometric bodies (and in particular role of temporal areas of the right and left hemispheres in the organization of corresponding thinking operations) have been studied.
Dominance of the right hemisphere has been established which is likely connected with the fact that simultaneous synthesis of the incoming information mainly takes place there. Correlation between particular errors in performance and different neuropsychological symptoms of disturbed visual-spatial functions has also been established.
PSYCHOLOGICAL MECHANISMS OF THE LANGUAGE SENSE
M. M. Gokhlerner, H. W. Eyger
Language sensitivity is discussed as a control mechanism providing linguistic "correctness" of speech. Physical basis of the mechanism can be described as a "nervous model" comprised of verbal elements, responsible for comparison of speech signals. Emotional component of the reaction to "incorrectness" is a variant of the intellectual emotion of "novelty". The intuitive character of reaction to "incorrectness" is expressed in globality of recognition without discoursive analysis. The authors define ways of formation of language sensitivity in the process of studying foreign languages and outline problems for investigation.
ON THE SPEED OF FORGETTING
V. N. Lange
A conceptual model of forgetting based on a probabilistic approach is suggested: l-l0 exp (-kt), where l0 is the initial amount of information, and l — its value after the passage of time t. The model is in good agreement with experimental data. Analysis of literature enables the author to establish values of the parameter k-|dl/(ldt)| interpreted as the relative speed of information loss, or "the speed of forgetting": for "neutral" information its value is about 10-5 sec-1, for emotionally charged information (a meaningful text) the speed of forgetting is approximately 10 times less.
Some ideas are presented concerning possible psychological means to increase the strength of emotionally bright information.
ON THE NATURE OF INCENTIVES
Ye. N. Bakanov, V. A. Ivannikov
The term "incentive" is used by the authors in the meaning of a dynamics of behavioral acts. Analysis of a variety of experimental data obtained in foreign and Soviet psychology enables the authors to conclude that the incentive function belongs neither to a need nor to an object (stimulus) as such. It is assumed therefore that incentives are brought, about by the uncertainty of relations between the mode of activity an its prospective results.