К. MARX' THEORETICAL HERITAGE AND POLITICAL PSYCHOLOGY
Yu. A. Sherkovin, T. V. Yevgenieva
K. Marx' theoretical heritage is analyzed within the framework of Marxist psychology of politics. Such issues as the personality and politics, the structure of revolutionary activity, political consciousness and view of the world, political typology of personalities, political control, class, national, and religious psychology in relation to politics — are considered. A conclusion is made that K. Marx' ideas may serve as a methodological basis for concrete studies of a number of political-psychological problems which is of great practical significance for the communist and revolutionary movement, for providing proletariat and his parties with the knowledge that can be used in the political and ideological struggle with the class enemy.
SOME TRENDS AND PERSPECTIVES IN THE STUDY OF NATURAL BASES OF INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES
E. A. Goloubeva
A hypothetical model is suggested which represents the integral wholeness of a personality's structure and individuality proceeding from the position of unity of the innate and the acquired, of the natural and the social. The community of such substructures as motivation, temperament, abilities, and character has been established as well as their correlations with the fundamental personality trend. Both the wholeness and the community are determined by two-way real links between the substructures mediated by systemic factors: emotionality, activity, self-regulation, and drives.
Most global natural prerequisites of motivation, temperament, abilities, and character are presented, and some prospective lines of analytical study of them by differential-psychological and psychophysiological means are outlined.
PSYCHOSEMANTIC STUDY OF MOTIVATION
V. F. Petrenko
Theoretical-experimental analysis of the psychosemantic approach to the study of motivational structures of personality is presented. Ascription of motives by student subjects to different deeds taken from students' life has been studied. Categorical structure of the individual mind determining perception and evaluation of deeds has been modelled in the form of subjective semantic spaces. General principles of reconstruction of semantic spaces which structurally organize motives and deeds are considered and realized on the basis of data obtained on a particular subject. Role of psychosemantic methods is discussed against other methods used for the study of the personality.
CORRELATION OF SOCIALLY USEFUL ACTIVITY AND COMMUNICATION IN ADOLESCENTS
G. V. Kaznova
Three forms of communication in adolescents: intimate-individual, group-spontaneous, and society-oriented — have been studied by means of a complex procedure comprising interviews, observation, questionnaries, quantitative-qualitative analysis of compositions, experimental situations, etc. The data obtained prove that participation of adolescents in a purposefully designed system of socially useful activity determines their attitude to different forms of communication and provides for a possibility to form in them society-oriented attitudes.
SOME ISSUES IN THE STUDY AND PREDICTION OF VERBAL ABILITIES IN SCHOOLCHILDREN
An experimental procedure for prediction of the level of verbal development in 3-rd form schoolchildren is presented. The procedure makes it possible to single out local components of a more general ability which lag behind, and select individually compensatory measures. Effect of social conditions on a child's verbal development has been revealed. The procedure is meant to be applied as a particular development test.
PSYCHOLOGICAL INFORMATION FOR THE TEACHER
Yu. N. Kouliutkin
Some measures to be taken in order to increase practical efficiency of the psychological knowledge acquired in the system of preparation of future teachers are discussed. Further detailed and multi-disciplinary studies of the teacher's job are needed — because only along this way it would be possible to specify exact requirements to the content of the psychological preparation of teachers and to find out adequate methods of that.
THE PROBLEM OF FORMING IMAGINATION IN BLIND-DEAF-AND-DUMB CHILDREN
Imagination is presented as a mental activity underlying the ability to produce images of any situation up to the image of the world as a
whole. Imagination is developed in the process of every activity, and the more completely the activity encompasses the situation the better is the result. Apart from the goal-directed activity of the child himself, of much importance in the promotion of imagination is the participation of an intimate adult who cooperates with the child and controls him. Imagination can be developed only in the process of developing the mind and the personality of the child in general by means of introducing him to different sorts of man's activities (especially artistic ones). In addition to the principle of totality (from the total to its parts) organization of imagination must be based on positive emotions which result from successful performance and from the joy of communicating with the beloved adult.
PSYCHOLOGY OF THE EDUCATIONAL-CREATIVE ACTIVITY
OF THE STUDENT OF A PERFORMING ART IN A
G. V. Tarasov
The data obtained in
interviews with students of the
EXPERIENCE OF ORGANIZING A PSYCHOLOGICAL-PEDAGOGICAL CONSULTATION
S. G. Shouman
In the city of
PSYCHOLOGICAL PROBLEMS OF THE FIRST YEARS OF MARITAL LIFE
Ye. S. Kalmykova
Material obtained in consulting of divorcing spouses is presented. Important role of the motivation behind the decision to get married for the consequent development of attitudes within marriage has been established. The problem of family leadership appears to be one of the most critical for the newlyweds. Disagreements about roles to be played in the family and about family values can also play decisive role. The problem of loss of love is discussed as well.
DETECTION OF THE OSCILLATORY MOVEMENT
The kinematic model suggested by the authors seems to be the most general conceptual tool for describing the absolute movement detection. It becomes urgent therefore to specify through experiments the scope of its applicability. The data presented in the paper allows to state with some caution that applicability of the model is determined only by those factors which limit accuracy of localization in the fore-front space of the moving object.
COMPARATIVE STUDY OF PREDICTIVE ACTIVITY IN PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN, ADULTS, AND SCHIZOPHRENIC PATIENTS
Results of children of pre-school age tested by a method of "play at guesses" were compared with data obtained on healthy adults, and on adult subjects affected with schizophrenia and oligophrenia. It has been revealed that part of subjects of all groups notice sequences of signals in the experimental cyclic environments. Stochastic environments were found to provoke the effect of levelling off the rates of predictions. It is assumed that man relies in all his milieus not on the rate but on the sequence of signals. This capacity connected with the ability to store behavioral information starts developing from 6 years of age. Behavior of children aged 4—7 and of oligophrens in all milieus is typically alternating.
CONCERNING SEMANTIC RELATIONS BETWEEN NEIGHBOURING SENTENCES IN A TEXT
The study has revealed double nature of semantic relations between nenghbouring sentences. On the one hand, sentences contain syntactical features determining their semantic dependance on other sentences, on the other hand — there is a structure of meaning in sentences which makes some of them logically indispensable, and some — not. When the dispensable sentences are extracted from the text, the content of the latter may become less rich, while the syntactical and logical structure of the text do not suffer. It is important to learn therefore how such reduction of texts effects understanding of them by readers and in what way it may be used for making synopses and abstracts.
PECULIARITIES OF FUNCTIONING OF THE "BIOLOGICAL CLOCK" IN SCHOOLCHILDREN
V.F. Konovalov, Zh.I. Bourkovetskaya
An experimental procedure involving mono-and binaural listening to tones presented with 15-seconds intervals has been performed on groups of younger and senior schoolchildren with the view to compare the degree of participation of the left and right brain hemisphere in functioning of the "biological clock". In 7—8 years old boys reproduction of the inter-stimulus pause has been accompanied by the binaural effect and by the effect of the left ear. In girls of the same age the monaural effect is present. A monaural effect independent of age is also characteristic of 16—17 years old subjects.
STORING OF DATA IN THE LOGICAL MEMORY
Ye.F. Ivanova, Ye.V. Zaika
A hypothesis that persons using different methods of thinking when trying to remember particular material should differ in the way this material is kept in their logical memory — has been experimentally proved. Two types of thinking (theoretical and empirical) have been particularly cross-studied in this respect in a number of aspects. Significant differences between the two allow the authors to assume existence of two corresponding types of the intellectual-mnemic activity: theoretical and empirical.
ON THE SUBJECT-MATTER OF THE PSYCHOLOGY OF PERSONALITY (MATERIALS OF A DISCUSSION)
An attempt is made to constitute the subjectmatter of the psychology of personality. A new determinational scheme of personality development is introduced, which underlies that social environment and individual properties by themselves can not pre-determine personality, they can influence it only after having been transformed within the goal-directed acting with objects. The latter is considered the system-setting principle and the moving force behind the development of personality. Different levels of a personality's engagement in the system of social relations have been established, and the requirements to units to be used in the analysis of the personality structure are stated.
ON STUDIES OF COMMUNICATION PERFORMED IN PSYCHOLOGY FROM V. N. MYASITSCHEV'S POSITION
Current issues in the study of communication are outlined proceeding from V.N. Myasishchev's concept of this process. Myasishchev who understood communication as inter-personal interaction of individuals, singled out three aspects of the process: cognition by the communicating people of each other, relations between them, and the way they treat each other. The author systematically considers how this scheme can and should be used in the scientific study of laws and mechanisms of communication by every subdivision of psychology which is currently engaged in the corresponding research.
COMPUTER VISION AND THE THEORY OF GESTALT
Zh. A. Gouberman
Some problems arising in realization of a Gestalt-approach to procession of pictures by a computer are dealt with. An algorythm is described based on the main principle of the Gestalt-approach to one- and two-dimensional pictures: non-local nature of objects' detection. Generalization of principles underlying the algorythm makes it possible to analyze in a constructive way some traditional problems of Gestalt-psychology (perception of point sets, cluster analysis, etc.) and specify links between Gestalt-psychology and the theory of systems.
ROLE OF V. PREYER'S WORK IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF CHILD'S PSYCHOLOGY
(to the 100-th year since publication of V. Preyer's "soul of the child")
Basic lines of research in psychology of the child which developed in this country after publication of V. Preyer's book "Soul of the child" with its accent on the necessity of objective observation of child's development are considered. Evaluation of V. Preyer's views by Russian authors is presented. Original contribution of Russian researchers to elaboration of theoretical and methodological issues in the field of the psychology of children is described.