РЕЗЮМЕ НА АНГЛИЙСКОМ ЯЗЫКЕ
MEANS OF OPTIMIZATION OF LEARNING AS A SYSTEM
YU. K. BABANSKY
A new didactical category — system of means of optimization of learning — is introduced. The author shows that there must exist as a consequence of principles and regularities of learning some stage-specific systems of means which can ensure increased efficiency and quality of learning as well as rational use and distribution of time and efforts on the part of students and teachers. Realization of such systems of interrelated activities of students and teachers will include: complex design of educational and developmental tasks; specification of them on the basis of actual learning capacities of students; generalization of their content (isolation of the essential in them); comparative estimation and further selection of the most efficient variants of means, procedures, forms etc. of teaching; individual approach to provision of help in learning; on-the-spot correction of learning activity; reduction of time and efforts spent by students and teachers on school activities.
EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOSEMANTICS: STUDY OF THE INDIVIDUAL MIND
V. F. PETRENKO
The article provides a review of studies in the field of experimental psychosemantics performed by the author and his collegues at the Moscow University's department of psychology. The studies were directed to investigation of subjective systems of meanings as fundamental components of individual minds (together with the, "sensorial weaving" and the "system of personal knowledge" — re: A. N. Leontiev). The principal method of studies consisted in construction of subjective semantic spaces regarded as operational analogues of categorial structures present in individual minds. The autor presents some principles of construction of semantic spaces, and discusses their structure in the context of verbal-visual semantics. An assumption is made that connotative semantic spaces and semantic spaces which reflect particular constellations of knowledge intimately connected with the "implicit theory of the subject", i. e. with the subjective system of meanings — are genetically interrelated. Role of affect as a factor which can reduce the number of dimensions of the semantic space is also discussed. Some experiments are presented in order to illustrate the psychosemantic approach to the study of structures of the individual mind. The Щ article is concluded with description of prospective trends in the study of personality by psychosemantical means.
TRADITIONAL PSYCHOMETRICS AND
OBJECT AND SUBJECT PARADIGMS
OF THE DATA ANALYSIS
A. G. SHMELIOV
Two different ways of the organization of data in an empirical study of individual variances are described in the paper. The first one is characteristic of traditional psychometric, of testographic approach: typically the data is structured as a flat, two-dimensional, "Subjects X Tested characteristics" matrix. With such structures it is not possible to simulate organization of the inner world on individual subjects. This is what is called the "object paradigm". In the experimental psychosemantics there were developed interpretational procedures and methods based on the three-dimensional "Subjects × Objects × Constructs" matrix. This is what the author calls the "subject paradigm" of the data analysis. With it it is possible to study and predict individual peculiarities of the inner world of subjects.
G. I. TCELPANOV — THE ORGANIZER OF THE INSTITUTE OF PSYCHOLOGY
L. A. RADZIKHOVSKY
The article is an attempt to reveal inner logic of the creative work of the founder of the Institute of Psychology — G. I. Tchelpanov. The author shows that organizational, pedagogical, and purely scientific activities of Tchelpanov must be analyzed as components of the same system. The core of this system consisted 1 in deep belief that psychology could exist as an independent discipline — primarily independent from physiology. However this conviction led Tchelpanov to a completely wrong conclusion that adoption of the hypothesis of the psychophysical parallelism would be the only guarantee of the independent scientific status for psychology.
OF THE THEORY OF GENERALIZED ASSOCIATIONS
B. B. KOSSOV, T. A. RATANOVA
The authors tell about life and creative work of P. A. Shevariov (1892—1972), and discuss his contributions to psychology — mainly to the dialectic-materialistic study of associations. P. A. Shevariov founded an unique school of scientific research which dealt mostly with the study of generalized associations he discovered, as well as with the search for practical application of results — primarily in school education. P. A. Shevariov's ideas concerning generalized associations were further elaborated in works of his pupils dedicated both to associations as such and to different aspects of perception — in works which proved importance of studying a number of new parameters of perception.
PSYCHOLOGICAL DESCRIPTION OF THE PERSONALITY
OF THE SENIOR PUPIL
YE. A. SHOUMILIN
An attempt is made in the article to establish psychological types of senior school-children on the basis of their educational-professional interests, and of their attitude to school subjects differing in the degree of professional orientation. Three groups of pupils have been revealed each characterized by specific levels of preparedness for self-determination, and by the ability to select vocational activity proceeding from both subjective and social needs.
CONCERNING THE PSYCHOLOGY OF CREATIVE THINKING
P. YA. GALPERIN, N. P. KOTIK
The authors describe the process of solving so-called problems on wittedness by three groups of students differing in the amount of preliminary experience of dealing with problems of this type and in the educational background. Importance of the critical analysis of failures and of the systematic estimation of all the elements of the problem, including the properties of the background field, is underlined. The latter strategy enables the subject to break away from customary or experience-bound patterns of thinking and finally apply rational thinking to prospective elements of the problem structure.
INDIVIDUAL-PSYCHOLOGICAL PECULIARITIES OF MUSICALITY
S. I. NAOUMENKO
Musicality is described by the author as a hierarchically organized system comprising a number of general and special musical abilities. Among them the ear for rhythm, creative imagination, and sense of completedness constitute the most fundamental group. Three bask types of musicality are presented: emotional-imaginative, rational, and reproductive. The first of them is assumed to be the highest. It occures only in individuals with equally high levels of development of constituent abilities.
CONCERNING THE PROCEDURE OF REVEALING MUSICALITY IN CHILDREN
B. L. BEREZOVSKY
The author speaks about practical necessity for development of a scientifically sound procedure of revealing, studying and measuring musical abilities in children. Such procedure might be used not only for testing musicality, but for re-testing it, cheching its progress, and for making diagnostical predictions as well. A procedure of this type based on combination of two methods (test and observation) is suggested by the author.
CONCERNING THE PROCEDURE
OVER PSYCHOLOGICAL STATES
G. SH. GABDREYEVA, N. M. PEISAKHOV
One of the main tasks of the "psychological service" in the higher school consists in the preparing of students for professional activity. In the particular case mentioned in the article this task has been performed on the basis of a four-stages "psychological model of the specialist" centered around the ability of self-control. Purposeful development of this ability can be achieved with the help of special courses included into the curriculum. The authors provide a theoretical framework of one such course called "The bases-of self-control over psychological states", and summarize practical experience of the organization of it and of lecturing on the subject in a higher school.
PROBLEMS OF HISTORY OF PSYCHOLOGY
O. M. TOUTOUNDJAN
It is stated in the article that history of psychology occupies a quite definite place in the system of psychological subjects. Being a theoretical discipline performing both cognitive and educational functions it has many aspects. Its scientific status is determined by a number of philosophical, methodological, historical and practical assumptions. History of psychology is an inexhaustible source of psychological facts, patterns and regularities which can be employed for construction of an unambiguous system of psychological knowledge, for development of
the dialectical theory of cognition, as well as for development of the present-day psychology and of the psychology of the future.
DISPOSITION TO JOY, ANGER
AND FRIGHT IN THE INDIVIDUAL
STRUCTURE OF EMOTIONALITY
A. A. PLOTKIN
A multi-dimensional structure of emotionlity is described in relation to the three basic modalities: joy, anger, and fright. Experimental examinations performed by the author have enabled him to reveal some widely met modality types of the emotionality structures, and to demonstrate that they correlate with the disposition to one of the three above mentioned modalities.
FRUSTRATION AND SEX OF THE PARTNER AS FACTORS IN SOLUTION OF THINKING PROBLEMS BY A GROUP
T. G. KHATSCHENKO
Frustration and sex of partners have been studied in the process of solving by a group of the so-called thinking problems (different puzzles and conundrums). 45 grown-up (18—35 years old) subjects, students and scientific-research workers, have been distributed into 15 groups, each consisting of three persons. 5 groups were completely male, 5 — completely female, and 5 groups were mixed. Results obtained in the study show that activity of subjects is related to the type of their personality, and particularly to their disposition to experience frustration. Male groups typically are more active than female groups, while mixed ones are characterized by the male pattern of work.
VERBAL SELECTION UNDER CONDITIONS OF SURMOUNTING
YE. A. LOUSTINA
The paper presents results of an experimental study of verbal choices made in situations which required from subjects to overcome the ambiguity either at the level of thinking or in imagination. It has been established that when ambiguity is surmounted at the level of thinking perceptual-imaginative kinds of knowledge are predominantly used, while the activity of imagination requires under similar conditions besides perceptual information actualization of the conceptual knowledge as well.
OF THE TEMPO OF SPEECH
IN SPEAKING NATIVE LANGUAGE
YE. M. DANILOVITCH
In order to define individual characteristics of speech tempo the author assumes that the oral expressive speech can be represented as a combination of two basic processes: 1) cerebral (associative-grammatical), and 2) psycho-motor (articulatory). Articulation is assumed to be a motor activity of a cyclic nature. An attempt has been made to reveal in an experiment some individual differences in the tempo of articulation, and to correlate them with some other sensori-motor indices (tapping test, speed of writing, etc.), as well as with some indices of the higher nervous activity.
TYPES OF TRACE FORMATION
EFFECTS IN PERCEPTION OF' VERBAL INFORMATION
V. A. SOUZDALIEVA
The paper is devoted to the study of the verbal memory, i. e. of the memory traces which develop in perception and processing of the verbal material. Results obtained in the study point to thea active character of the trace effects — they may both facilitate and inhibit further perception of verbal information. Direct correlation between the efficiency of memorization and trace formation and the degree of the perceptual and conceptual analysis of the material perceived has been established: the higher is the level of processing the stronger is the trace and better is memorized the material. Two groups of subjects were revealed in the study characterized by opposite dynamics of the trace formation processes. The data is interpreted in terms of Graik—Lockhart theory of the depth of information processsing and in terms of Marcel—Forrin theory of spreading activation.
EFFECT OF THE DETECTABILITY
OF ELEMENTARY FEATURES
OF STIMULI ON THE PROCESS
V. G. KOULIKOV
The work reported in the paper has been devoted to the study of the effect of the degree of detectability of separate features of the multidimensional stimuli on the process of recognition. In particular temporal characteristics of recognition of stimuli coinciding (T+) and not coinciding with the standard (T—) have been compared with the view to reveal conditions most favorable for successful recognition.
OF INTERPERSONAL COGNITION
V. N. PANFIOROV
The paper presents results of experimental studies of cognitive standards and stereotypes used by people in every-day perception and estimation of psychological qualities of others. Most widely used anthropological, social, and emotional measures of appearance used in such interpretations are described; and some psychological regularities underlying consistent correlations established by people at large between certain appearances and psychological qualities ascribed to them are discussed.
A COMPLEX PROCEDURE FOR
THE STUDY AND ESTIMATION
OF THE SKIN-KINESTHETIC SYSTEM
N. R. BABADJANOVA
The article presents a new procedure of studying the skin-kinesthetic system. Preliminary review of relevant literature revealed a number of stereognostic factors and enabled the author to combine in a single experimental battery 15 tests intended for study of different gnostic and mnestic aspects of the skin-kinesthetic analyzer in norm and in patients with local lesions. Accurate standardization of tests and use of objective criteria makes it possible to analyze the experimental data both qualitatively and quantitatively.
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