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DEVELOPMENT AND PSYCHOLOGICAL STRUCTURE
OF COGNITIVE ACTIVITY
A. M. MATIUSHKIN
Activity is presented as the most general category which makes it possible to study the most complicated forms of life activity, behavior and of specifically human intentional activity in different sciences — biology, physiology, psychology, and social sciences. Two kinds of activity—adaptive and productive—are compared in terms of needs (motivation) which evoke them, of the structure of self-regulation, and of the conditions necessary for the psychological development of them. Productive activities are based on the cognitive activity which is evoked by cognitive needs, is further regulated by acts of understanding, and develops on the basis of dialogue-type forms of communication.
A didactic model for an experimental study of the cognitive activity is described. Some experimental studies are also presented which have enabled the author to obtain facts pertaining to the psychological conditions of situational generation of cognitive motivation, to the effect of types of communication (in learning and play) on the dynamics of cognitive activity, as well as to the effect of other factors (types of problems, structure of dialogues, particular circumstances of common or conflicting activities). Some of the experimental results can be used in the pedagogical work connected with the stimulation of cognitive activity in learning.
DEVELOPMENT OF COGNITIVE ACTIVITY IN CHILDREN
IN THE PROCESS OF COMMUNICATION WITH ADULTS AND AGE-PEERS
M. I. LISINA
Psychological ideas concerning activity in general as well as some particular forms of it (psychological, mental, intellectual, and cognitive activities) has been analyzed on the material obtained in experimental studies of Soviet researchers. The author puts forward a hypothesis that communication with others plays the determining role in development of cognitive activity in children. Some critical facts established by the author and his coworkers as a result of studies of communication and cognition in infants and in pre-school children are presented to prove the hypothesis. Possible mechanisms of the effect of communication on development of cognition are discussed.
Â. Ì. TEPLOV AND THE PSYCHOLOGY OF INDIVIDUAL VARIANCES
N. S. LEITES
The article presents the general system «f views of Â. Ì. Teplov on the nature and significance of individual-psychological variances. The author particularly considers contribution of the scientist to the study of abilities and mental endowments which comprises the main line of his creative work. Teplov's books "Psychology of musical abilities" and "Mind of the military leader", where his idea of qualitative peculiarities of individual gifts and abilities has been developed in fine details, are analysed. Special attention is given to the fact that Â. Ì. Teplov was the founder of the psyhophysiological approach to the study of individual differences. An outline of the creative work of the scientist as well as discussion of the effect of his scientific heritage on the contemporary Soviet psychology are also provided.
S. V. KRAVKOV AS A PSYCHOLOGIST AND A PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGIST
I. B. KOTOVA
The author outlines main stages in the scientific biography of S. V. Kravkov inseparably linked with the Scientific-research institute of general and pedagogical psychology of the USSR APS where he worked from 1916 till 1951. Outstanding contribution of Kravkov to development of the most important, difficult and still urgent problems of general psychology and psychophysiology is also shown. Kravkov was one of the best Soviet researchers who participated in the development of a new, materialistic approach to the study of sense mechanisms. His experimental studies enabled him to come very near to creation of a general theory of sense organs. Kravkov was especially interested in the problem of color vision. He established many functional relations between different color vision mechanisms, revealed intimate nature of color vision processes at the ionic level, etc. He was also able to update the three-component theory on the basis of his own experimental findings. Of great interest still are the works of Kravkov and of his pupils which demonstrate possibility to change the sensitivity of eyes through conditioning.
PROBLEM OF ACTIVITY IN A.N. LEONTIEV'S WORK
V. V. DAVYDOV, V. P. ZINTCHENKO, N. F. TALYSINA
The paper reproduces the report of the three authors presented to the meeting of the methodological Seminar of the USSR Society of psychologists: The authors' analysis of A. N. Leontiev's psychological works enables them to make some assumptions concerning the proper subject-matter of psychology, its method, and consequently, its language and units of analysis. They state however that Leontiev laid only general theoretical grounds which have to be further developed and specified in relation to concrete psychological facts and data. Particular task consists in the integration of Leontiev's views on the role of the category of activity in psychology with the views of other Soviet psychologists (L. S. Vygotsky, S. L. Rubinstein, P. Ya. Galperin, etc.)
PSYCHOLOGICAL-PEDAGOGICAL PROBLEMS OF VOCATIONAL TRAINING
V. V. SHAPKIN, A. F. ESAOULOV
Psychological-pedagogical peculiarities of education in vocational training schools are considered. It is shown that proper combination of learning with productive work in schools of this type speeds up psychological preparation of students for acquisition of theoretical material, and, on the other hand, helps teachers to better organize their work connected with development of standards of mental work in students. In particular it provides for faster transition from comprehension of particular aspects of knowledge to formulation of general rules and concepts, from the stage of accumulation of facts to the stage of integration of them into a system of generalized knowledge. It is stressed in the paper that dynamic, mobile system of knowledge can not be developed if students deal only with textbook problems. Future workers have to learn the skill of formulating problems for themselves proceeding from real-life industrial set-up. They must possess the skill of re-formulating the terms and conditions of problems, must know how to look for alternate conditions.
PRACTICAL VALUE OF METHODS OF PSYCHOLOGICAL SELF-REGULATION
AND PROSPECTIVE POTENTIALITY OF THE DIRECT APPLICATION OF
ØÅÌ IN ATHLETIC ACTIVITIES OF YOUNG SPORTSMEN
V. A. DOSKIN, N. A. LAVRENTIEVA, V. V. GORSKY
Brief periods of sleep self-induced directly in the process of physical activity contribute to faster functional recovery of psychological systems in young sportsmen, help them to overcome unfavorable psychological states and sensations which may appear under conditions of prolonged physical load, and help to achieve higher sports efficiency.
PSYCHOLOGICAL BASES OF FAMILY THERAPY
V. V. STOLIN
Three basic divisions of theoretical knowledge about family are named and discussed in the article: knowledge about family as a dynamic system, knowledge about interactivities (transactions) of family members, and knowledge about role of individual peculiarities of famine members in family interactions. Dependence of goals of the psychotherapeutic work on the nature of disturbance in family interactions, is discussed. Some arguments substantiating the idea that self-consciousness and conscious attitudes off individuals are of key importance in the process of correction of disturbed family interaction are provided.
PHANTOM IMAGES OF ÂINOCUL VISION IN THE SYSTEM
OF HEMISPHERIC RELATIONS
V. V. SOUVOROVA, M. A. MATOVA
Particular type of visual images, which are named phantoms by the authors, has been revealed in the study of binocular vision ñînceptualized as a function of an analyzer ðîssessing paired receptors and paired brain centers. It is shown that phantom images a brain-produced (i. e. they belong to the category of visualized images) and that they a related to the efferent activity of the visu analyzer. Unlike the visualized image proper the phantom image develops in the process o stimulus perception. Similar to the perceptual image it is a component of the fusion image. Particular characteristic of the phantom image is its sensitivity to external influences. Ðhantom images appear when one of the two ñcorresponding zones of central and peripheral vision is separately stimulated; they are located in the space of the second (not stimulated) corresponding zone. It is assumed by the authors that appearance of phantom images both in central and peripheral vision is determined by projection of the stimulus onto receptor connected with neurons of the ipsilateral hemisphere.
SOME PRINCIPLES OF DIFFERENTIATION OF THE SELF-APPRAISAL SCALE
IN PSYCHPHYSIOLOGICAL STUDIES
G. K. MAKSHIMOV, A. N. SINITSYN
The authors consider some principles necessary for proper design of scales to be used in psychophysiological studies for estimation by subjects of their state under conditions â stress. A criterion for optimal differentiation 6 the scales is suggested. The principles discussed in the paper helped the authors to increase
efficiency of studies under conditions of heat stress.
SOME PSYCHOLOGICAL FEATURES OF ORAL SPEECH IN YOUNGER
L. V. POPOVA
The author discusses re-telling as a specific kind of oral speech trained in school-children of "I-III forms. Such traditional indices as mean length of sentences, mean length of the five most lengthy sentences, and structural complexity of sentences have been used for the analysis of speech. Besides them the author developed—proceeding from psycholinguistic procedures of analysis of the content structure of tests—an index of tightness of the sentence content. Introduction of the latter has enabled the author to conclude that development of speech in children of this age is characterized progressive complication of the semantic structure of utterances, which is manifested in increased number of semantic units per one, as well as in greater variety of relation between those units.
FUNCTIONAL ASYMMETRY OF THE BRAIN AND DIRECT SUBJECTIVE ESTIMATION OF LOUDNESS
S. A. ZAKHAROVA
Peculiarities of direct subjective estimation of tone loudness under conditions of preferential stimulation of either of the hemispheres in left-hand subjects have been studied. Two procedures have been used: with verbal and with non-verbal estimation of tones. No significant differences between subjective estimation î tones addressed to different hemispheres ha been observed.
A DEVICE FOR RECORDING SPATIAL SYCHRONIZATION OF PHASES OF EEG
S. V. KVASOVETS, Î. Î. SOUKHANOV
A device is described designed for automatic separate and correlated registration of temporal phases of EEG waves. The device allows one to register as well changes in the level of asymmetry of waves in four channels simultaneously.
NEW PROCEDURE FOR LIMITING THE FIELD OF VISION
S. I. AVGOUSTEVITCH
Review of existing methods used for registration of visual perception enables the author to demonstrate advantages of the method of limitation of visual fields for objectivization of the perceptual activity. Manual control of the limited operative field of vision allows the experimenter to simulate real-life working conditions of the observer-operator. A system of requirements for procedures of this, type is described. The author presents design of a visuocinemograph — a device intended for the study of visual-perceptial activity of the observer-operator under conditions of limited field of vision similar to real-life conditions of his work. Some data obtained through application of the method are briefly analyzed.