ÐÅÇÞÌÅ ÍÀ ÀÍÃËÈÉÑÊÎÌ ßÇÛÊÅ
IN THE STRUCTURE OF ACTIVITY
Need, motive, goal, and object are among the basic components of the motivational structure of activity; at that it is possible to differential them both in the dynamic plane related to the need tension, and in the plane of content related to the character of the subject-object structure as it develops in the process of fixation of a particular need on a set of particular objects. In the dynamic plane it is possible to sufficiently well differentiate motivational components of the human activity along the polar axis extending from the "deficiency motivation" to "growth motivation". More incisive structuring of motivational components, encompassing those connected with the content of activity as well, can be achieved on the basis of functional tendencies, i. e. by means of revealing that pole of activity to which the subject of activity is oriented. At the scientific-economic level of activity such poles can be termed as production and consumption; at the ontological level — as establishment and breaking of object fixations; at the level of the subject — as interiorization and exteriorization.
FROM THE "MAN-MACHINE"
SYSTEM TO THE "SOCIO-TECHNICAL" SYSTEM
A. A. PISKOPPEL, L. P. TSHCHEDROVITSKY
Review of the interpretation of the notion of "man-machine system" (MMS) — from its very appearance till latest conceptualizations — is presented. It is shown that nowadays this term covers at least three notions corresponding to three different engineering-psychological (or ergonomical) concepts: cybernetical, subject-oriented, and that based on the system-of-activity approach. In this light typical approaches to' the definition of MMS attempted in engineering psychology (ergonomics) are analyzed. As a result of the necessity to distinguish the three notions the authors consider expendiency of using in the framework of the system-of-activity concept the term "socio-technical system" instead of MMS. Some specific features of the socio-technical system are described.
PLAY IN ANIMALS AND CHILDREN
Ê. Å. FABRI
Proceeding from the theory of play as a manifestation of developing psychological activity elaborated by the author as a result of long studies, and from the classification of play in animals suggested by the author (both the theory and classification are briefly outlined in the article), some fundamental comparative-psychological issues of the problem of play in animals and children have been analyzed. Basic attention is given to those, characteristic of the juvenile period of the ontogenesis, substitutional transformations which predetermine the substitution of the secondary, "imitational" and "surrogate", i. e. play type, relations for the primary relations which have been established by the developing organism with elements of his environment. Significance of these processes for the development of mature behavior is discussed. Both philogenetically determined homological components and qualitative differences in the play of animals and children are stressed with a special accent on specifically human aspects of mental development.
STUDY OF THE INTERRELATED DEVELOPMENT OF PERSONALITY'S
COGNITIVE ABILITIES AND DYNAMIC CHARACTER TRAITS
V. Ye. MILERIAN
Complex systems-structural approach to the study of characterological traits and abilities of personality has been realized with the view to reveal the pattern of their functional interrelations within a total dynamic structure. Interdependence in the development of cognitive abilities in senior schoolchildren and of the following dynamic character traits: energeticity, steadiness, mobility, volitional self-regulation, emotional stability — has been experimentally and theoretically studied. It has been shown that in the process of teaching and education development of cognitive abilities and of dynamic character traits is in fact an intimate and dialectical process of interaction and inter-determination.
IN PRE-SCHOOL KIDS AND
IN YOUNGER SCHOOLCHILDREN
G. P. ANTONOVA, N. V. KHROUSTALIOVA
The study has revealed that majority of preschool and younger schoolchildren easily accept suggestion. However they differ significantly in the degree of suggestibility. At that the more readily a child accepts suggestion the less inclined he is to show initiative, to get engaged in independent, creative work, and correspondingly more inclined to perseverational and reproductive activities. Suggestibility is age-dependent: when at school children tend to accept suggestion (especially verbal) less readily. The article is concluded with some pedagogical recommendations concerning individual approach to teaching and education of children differing in the degree of suggestibility.
CORRELATION BETWEEN INTEREST
AND ANXIETY IN THE LEARNING
ACTIVITY OF YOUNGER
A. K. DOUSAVITSKY
Particular relations between learning-cognitive interest and school anxiety in younger schoolchildren reveal specificity of development of affective-motivational grounds of learning activity under different schooling conditions. It has been found out in the author's study that under •experimental conditions of instruction directed to promotion of acquisition of theoretical forms of thinking the learning-cognitive interest becomes the leading motive of learning activity. This is accompanied by significantly lower level of school anxiety as compared with that in the control class where teaching is performed on basis of regular programmes and where development of the learning-cognitive interest has been registered only in a small number of pupils.
ON PSYCHOLOGY DEFENDED
A. A. BODALIOV, V. M. MELNIKOV
The authors provide analytical review of dissertation studies on psychology defended in the period of 1976—1981.
PROBLEMS OF PERFECTING
FOR THE COMMUNIST ATTITUDE
O. I. ZOTOVA, V. V. NOVIKOV
The authors consider social-psychological aspects of promoting the movement for the communist attitude to work in work brigades which employ new methods of organization and stimulation of their labour. Results of comparative studies in Communist labour brigades and in work groups not engaged in the movement are presented. Special attention is given to issues which the brigade-leaders have to deal with in order to improve the efficiency of work: instruction in neighboring skills, employment of interchangeable tools and equipment, stimulation and introduction of inventions and rationalisations, organization of refresher courses, etc. Some difficulties of social-psychological nature arising in the process of promotion of the movement for the communist attitude to work are described.
DETERMINANTS OF ACCEPTANCE BY A GROUP OF A NEW MEMBER
A. S. GORBATENKO
The problem of social-psychological determinants of the process of assimilation by a group of new members is considered in the light of A. V. Petrovsky's theory of activity-mediation of group activity. It has been established that high development (collective type) groups as well as diffuse groups with pro-social orientation are characterized by high "adapting capacity": members of such groups posess attitudes which contribute to acceptance of new members, they ascribe to the fresher the most desirable personality qualities, they tend to manifest effective group emotional identification with the fresher, and develop humane and equal attitudes in relation to him. Diffuse and anti-socially oriented groups are characterized by qualitatively opposed features — in particular the non-humane tendencies in relation to the fresher manifested both at the level of attitudes and at the level of real-life interaction.
EFFECT OF INTERRELATIONS
WITHIN A BRIGADE
ON THE ORGANIZATION
AND ON THE FUNCTIONAL STATE
Ye. M. BORISOVA, A. V. KOLESNIKOVA
The article presents results of a complex psychological and physiological study of primary work groups with different psychological climate. It has been found out that level of interrelations established in brigades determines organization of collective work, its efficiency, state and dynamics of certain physiological functions. When the level is low distribution of duties in the collective is ineffective, mutual aid and efficiency of work are at a low level, and deviation of functional states from norm in brigade members is more pronounced.
ON THE ABSOLUTE THRESHOLD IN PSYCHOACOUSTICS
Yu. A. INDLIN
Absolute threshold is described as a border level of sensory arousal in the task of picking up a signal from the internal sensory noise. Since direct experimental testing of the threshold hypothesis is too hard to realize the author has chosen to analyze experimental situations representing the signal detection task in sensory region. Results of the experiments testify to the existence of the absolute sensory threshold the value of which is determined by statistical characteristics of the background sensory noise.
SUBJECTIVE BRIGHTNESS SCALE AS A FUNCTION OF STIMULUS DENSITY IN THE TEST RANGE
V. I. LOUPANDIN, L. A. TERIOSHINA
The authors studied dependence of certain parameters of the subjective brightness scale
on density of light stimuli in the given test range. It has been shown that by varying the density one may obtain an array of psychophysical curves intermediate between logarithm and power curves.
ONTOGENESIS OF THE SYNDROME
OF STRENGTH OF THE NERVOUS
SYSTEM IN RELATION
N. F. SHLIAKHTA, A. A. BOLBOTCHANOU
Syndrom of strength of the nervous system has been studied on 9—10 and 14—16 years old children and on 18—25 years old adult subjects by means of correlation and factor techniques. Strength of the nervous system has been diagnosed on the basis of EEG-extinction with reinforcement of the conditional reflex and of the reaction of reorganization of brainwaves, and with the help of a motor technique. It has been established in the study that the basic structure of the EEG strength syndrome is in the main developed by 9—10 years and is essentially the same at a later age. Age dynamics of the EEG strength syndrome consists in changes of absolute values of some indices, in increased values of reliability correlations between them, and in increased number of indices which constitute the syndrome.
"MANNER OF ACTING"
AS A TYPOLOGICAL CATEGORY
N. N. AZAROV
A hypothesis that individual differences in cognitive functioning can be predetermined by a global factor of impulsivity has been tested on 43 18—30 years old subjects. Impulsivity has been measured by means of special procedures addresed to its different aspects: motor, cognitive, and affective-volitional. The study has revealed manifestations of a single global factor identified as "impulsivity — controllability". It shows also that impulsive subjects tend to the figurative-active thinking (Wechsler) and to the field-dependent behavior (Hartly), while controllable subjects — to the verbal thinking (Wechsler) and to the field-independent behavior (Hartly).
OF THE SENTENCE PERIPHRASIS
IN CHANGING CONTEXTS
G. A. SMIRNOV
The article presents results of an experimental study of using periphrases for fixed sentences in different contexts and without any context at all. The results are analyzed from the standpoint of contextual organization of texts: the context determines both lexical composition of the periphrasis and actual segmentation of sentences. In the latter case the periphrasis is used only for that part of sentence which corresponds to the theme.
METHOD OF REVEALING SUBJECTIVE CRITERIA OF ACTIONS SUCCESS
V. I. MOROSANOVA, V. I. STEPANSKY
In the main the method consists in the following: contrary to the traditional approach to results of successive actions as random variables, the authors take into account influence of preceeding results on the subsequent ones which is typical of activities comprised of reiterated similar acts. Using new, correlation-matrix method of data processing the authors elicit individual series of quantitative indices characterizing activity regulation.
TEST FOR PREDICTION
OF OPERATORS ATTITUDE
TO RISK TAKING
A. A. KONDRATSKY
An apparatus test designed to measure inclination of subjects to take justified/unjustified chances, and to unjustified (excessive) prudence is described. The task to be performed by the subject is presented to him as a test of his sensori-motor abilities. Specific values of the above inclinations is ascribed to a subject on the basis of comparing his choices of aims in consecutive trials with the actual level of his sensori-motor efficiency.
ADAPTATION OF THE SCALE FOR
Yu. L. HANIN
An algorithm for adaptation of questionnaires procedures, as well as an attempt to develop a Russian-language variant of Ch. D. Spilberger's scale of reactive and personality anxiety are described.
USE OF PSYCHOLOGICAL
IX INSTRUCTIONAL WORK
K. A. SABITOV
Design and principle of work of a device for use in psychological and physiological studies is described. Examples of its employment in instructional work with demonstration purposes are provided.