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PHASES OF THE CREATIVE PROCESS AND STRUCTURAL LEVELS OF ITS ORGANIZATION
YA. A. PONOMARIOV
Up-to-date ideas concerning the problem of phases (stages, steps, etc.) of the creative process are presented. The phases are regarded by the author as structural levels of the organization of the latter. Four phases are named: logical analysis, intuitive decision-making, verbalization of the intuitive decision, formalization of the verbalized decision. Shift from one phase to another is understood as a manifestation of the psychological mechanism of creativity. Its analysis reveals different classes of the difficulty of creative problems. One of them comprises problems which are solved by means of regular employment of conscious methods and procedures (the result obtained in that way corresponds to the logic of the knowledge the subject possesses). The other comprises problems which require for their solution intermediate insights not conscious at first; making them conscious demands reconstruction of the logic pertaining to the system of knowledge possessed by the subject.
BASIC PRINCIPLES OF PSYCHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS IN THE THEORY OF INTENTIONAL ACTIVITY
A. G. ASMOLOV
It is stated in the paper that the general psychological theory of intentional activity of L. S. Vygotsky, A. N. Leontiev, and A. R. Luria has entered a critical phase in its development. A program of research is suggested in the article with the view to promote further development of the theory. The first stage in realization of this program is discussed. It consists in formulation of main principles of the theory of intentional activity. The author suggests the following system of principles: the principle of object-mediation of activity as opposed to the principle of stimulus-mediation of activity, the principle of active nature of the mind as opposed to the principle of reactivity, the principle of the non-adaptive nature of human activities as opposed to the principle of adaptivity, the principle of mediation of higher psychological functions as opposed to the principle of immediate associative connections, the principle of analysis of the mind "by units" as opposed to the principle of analysis of the mind "by elements", the principle of interiorization/exte-riorization as opposed to the principle of so1 cialization in psychology abroad, the principle of dependence of psychological reflection on the place of the reflected object in the structure of activity, the principle of historicism.
THINKING AS A PROCESS AND THE PROBLEM OF ACTIVITY
A. V. BROUSHLINSKY
The article deals with the interrelations between the methodological principle of the unity of consciousness and activity, and the psychological theory of thinking as a process developed in S. L. Roubinstein's school. Thinking is analyzed as an interaction of the continuous (process) and of the discreet (products of the process). For the first time two important concepts which were always studied separately in the psychology of thinking are brought together: analysis through synthesis, and personal (subjective) meaning.
THEORETICAL PROBLEMS OF INDIVIDUAL
DEVELOPMENT IN WORKS OF
I. A. SOKOLYANSKY
AND A. I. METSCHERYAKOV
R. R. KONDRATOV
The author analyzes studies by I. A. Sokolyansky and A. I. Metscheryakov (who founded this new branch of pedagogics) of the development of psychological structures in the blind-deaf-and-mute person. Special attention is given to those concepts developed by them which promote better understanding of the human mind in general and of the regularities of its development. Some relevant experimental material obtained in their studies is presented and analyzed. It is shown that they tried to overcome naturalistic and mechanistic psychological notions, and to establish the determining role of child's communication with adults for his psychological development. The author attempts to substantiate the principle according to which the human psyche develops during life and in strict order of consecutive stages. Principal role of the method of shared child-adult activity for the development in the child of the capacity for active operations, i. e. for turning him into the subject of activity, is underlined.
ATTENTION IN YOUNGER SCHOOLCHILDREN WITH DIFFERENT PROGRESS
G. M. PONARYADOVA
The paper presents results of an experimental study of different parameters of attention (dynamics of stability, distribution, and switching) in three groups of children from the 1—4-th forms (7—10 years old): with poor, satisfactory, and excellent progress. (Proof-reading technique has been used).
The author presents data on high (exceeding average for each age-group) and low (not
reaching average) values, on increments in values of particular properties, on intensity of individual differences, and on types of correlation between the parameters which has been studied. The data is differentiated between the progress- and age — groups.
TO THE PROBLEM OF CREATION
OF MOTIVATIONAL COMPONENTS
IN THE ACTIVITY OF PRE-SCHOOL
N. V. YELFIMOVA
The author provides an analysis of the motivational component of the activities of preschool children. Three basic characteristics of it are presented: 1) appearance of the motive which incites a child to action, 2) goal hierarchy — i. e. ability of the child to arrange goals into a hierarchy, 3) nature of the relation between the developing action and the motive behind leading (play) activity. On the basis of these characteristics the author introduces 3 levels of development of the motivational component which determine peculiarities of motivation in children of this age: 1-st (high) level where only motive appearance counts, 2-nd (low) level where not only motive appearance but also inability of the child to organize a hierarchy of goals is an active factor, and 3-rd (the lowest) level where motive appearance, inability to arrange goals, and relation between the goal of an action and the motive behind the leading activity are all active factors.
A TRY-OUT TO ANALYZE DIAGNOSTICAL PROCEDURES
YU. V. KARPOV
The article presents results of an analytical consideration of a procedure designed under the guidance of Z. I. Kalmykova for diagnosis of mental development of schoolchildren. A model of acquisition of an empirical generalization, based on the activities approach has been designed. Development in children of actions constituting the operation of empirical generalization enabled them to obtain high results when solving problems included into the diagnostic set. It is believed therefore that suggested diagnostic procedure really measures the ability to make empirical generalizations. Which raises a question whether the described diagnostic procedure can be used as a general diagnostic tool for measuring mental development in schoolchildren.
TO THE PROBLEM OF DIAGNOSIS OF MENTAL DEVELOPMENT
Z. I. KALMYKOVA
In the article the author provides brief review of the "problem-synthetic" procedures suggested for the diagnosis of learnability — an important component of the general mental development. It contains also descriptions of basic theoretical assumptions and principles underlying such procedures. Apart other things they are designed as an individual teaching experiment in the process of which schoolchildren "discover" new knowledge while looking independently for a solution of a problem. Total registration of the solving process provides the data for qualitative characterization of the developing mental properties which comprize learnability, and for calculation of a summary quantitative index of learnability — "the efficiency of thinking" (length of the way to the discovery of new information). Procedures can be adapted for different subject-matters (physical, geometric, semantic, etc.). They enable the researcher to establish age- and individual differences in the learnability of schoolchildren, and are sensitive to the effect of different conditions of learning on schoolchildren's mental development.
SOME PECULIARITIES OF PSYCHOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT OF YOUNGER SCHOOLCHILDREN RAISED IN CHILREN'S INSTITUTIONS
A.M. PRIKHOZHAN. N. N. TOLSTYKH
The authors present some data which has been obtained in an experimental study of psychology of younger schollchildren brought up in a special school for children left by their parents (children of the same age learning in regular schools served as controls). Special attention is given to developments in the intellectual and affective-motivational spheres with a particular accent on the problem of psychological preparedness for school. The article is concluded with some recommendations concerning organization of the teaching-educational process in children's homes and boarding schools.
STUDY OF RELATIONS BETWEEN
TEACHERS AND PUPILS IN SOCIAL
AND EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY IN DDR
YA. I. KOLOMINSKY, N. G. OLOVNIKOVA
The authors present and summarize a number of papers published in DDR on the problem of educational communication. This problem is sufficiently well represented in foreign literature. The relations which develop within the "teacher—pupil" system are particularly well elaborated in works of DDR's social and educational psychologists. The article provides sufficient insight into the state of this problem in the social and educational psychology in the DDR, and may be of use to psychologists and teachers in this country.
AN EXPERIMENT IN ORGANIZATION OF
PRACTICAL TRAINING FOR STUDENTS
V. A. OKHRIMENKO, V. S. DOUDTCHENKO
The article is devoted to a discussion of an important way to perfect the preparation of students — improvement of the organization of their practical training. The authors' experience in the experimental organization of such practice is described; in particular essentials of a "submergense" method are presented. The latter requires that the trainees get included ("submerged") into the industrial reality. It is achieved with the help of special operative means which facilitate mastering of practical -situations. Collective methods of work have been used, and specific attetion has been given to the preparation of analytical texts by the trainees.
OUT OF EXPERIENCE OF IMPROVING THE TEACHING OF PSYCHOLOGY IN
A HIGHER SCHOOL
V. F. SHMORGOUN
The article touches upon some issues of the problem of perfecting the process of teaching psychology in an institute of education. Particularly the author discusses significance of the inter-disciplinary approach, stresses the necessity of using contemporary technical means and devices and of organization of psychological laboratories. He suggests also a new system of psychological subjects to be used in training of future teachers.
LEVEL OF DEVELOPMENT AS A GROUP
FACTOR DETERMINING FUNCTIONAL
CORRELATION BETWEEN EFFICIENCY OF
A GROUP AND ITS SIZE
R. S. NEMOV, A. YA. GALVANOVSKIS
Analysis of the available literature reveals contradicting data concerning the relation between efficiency of a group and its size. The authors assume that these contradictions are results of not taking into account the level of the groups' social-psychological development. A hypothesis is suggested according to which relations between a group's size, efficiency, and satisfaction are functions of the level of its social-psychological development. The study performed on 38 groups of schoolchildren (ranging in size from 4 to 7 members) which belonged to one of four levels of development proved correctness of the hypothesis. It has been found out that in developmental^ high and medium groups efficiency, average individual contribution, and satisfaction does not practically depend on the number of members, while in random groups and in groups of low level of development there exists statistically significant correlation between these factors.
CORRELATION BETWEEN STABLE
OF EMOTIONALITY AND SOCIABILITY
O. P. SANNIKOVA
The aim of the study was to reveal correlations between qualitative peculiarities of emotionality and dynamic parameters of sociability. As a result of the study it has been found out that different emotional dispositions are characterized by definite patterns of sociability. Tendency to experience positive emotions correlates with active sociability and extraversion, while disposition to negative emotions — with reserve and intraversion. The obtained correlations are in fact manifestations of specific relations with the world inherent in emotions of described modalities.
CONTROL OVER THE PROCESS OF
TRAINING OF COMPUTER OPERATORS
I. K. VALOVAYA
Organization of the process of teaching computer operators which takes into account the tempo of information processing, intensity of psychological structures and processes, and the speed of learning corresponding mental operations makes it possible to realize a new approach in the education of people who work with computers. Elaboration of this approach has revealed factors and indices of the progress in mastering the information processing skills, which can be used also as grounds for prediction of individual patterns of skill acquisition and of individual psychological differences as well as for prediction of degree of mental fatigue when working with test problems of varying complexity. The described model of the training process can be regarded as a system of control over development of an intellectual activity which will in its turn have to ensure the. efficiency of this activity when it becomes part of a large system of activities.
TO THE QUESTION OF THE TYPES OF DISTURBANCE OF SPEECH
UNDERSTANDING IN APHASIA
M. S. STRELTSYNA
Two groups of aphasic patients (anterior and posterior) were tested for comprehension of 5 well-known proverbs. A slight modification of B. F. Zeigarnik's comparative method (comparison of comprehension of proverbs and phrases) which had been designed' for the investigation of the role of selectivity in verbal systems revealed quantitative differences in the performance of the two aphasic groups. The results are interpreted from the standpoint of A. R. Luria's neuropsychological theory.
AUTOMATIZED LOGICAL-PLAY SYSTEM FOR USE IN PSYCHOLOGICAL EXPERIMENTATION
I. V. YERMAKOVA
Computers are more and more often used by psychologists because they make it possible to realize complicated experimental designs which require immediate processing of large amounts of information. A similar approach was tryed in one of the laboratories of the Scientific-research Institute of General and Educational psychology attached to the USSR Academy of Pedagogical Sciences where an automatized logical-play stem «ÀËÈÑÀ» had been created which turned an efficient tool of preparation and conduction of experimental design.
RE-VALIDATION OF THEMATIC APPERCEPTION TESTS FOR MEASURING THE AFFILIATION MOTIVATION
YU. M. ORLOV, N. D. TVOROGOVA
Results of a revalidation of TAT content-analysis designed for measuring the affiliation motivation are presented. The revalidization has been done on students, and proved validity of the procedure.
A METHOD OF STUDYING EFFICIENCY OF THE TACTILE-MOTOR ANALYZER
A. S. LOUKAOUSKAS, V. B. OBIELYANIS, YU. P. RAOUBA
The procedure described in the paper is suggested as an experimental means of studying functional state of the tactile—motor analyzer, parameters of attention, and speed of information processing. Continuous use of the procedure daring the whole of a working shift makes it possible to obtain curves of fatigue for certain functional systems. The suggested procedure is easy to handle and sufficiently convenient to' be used for research at working places.
INDIVIDUAL PSYCHOLOGY OF ALFRED ADLER
JA. JA. BUNDULS
The paper tries to characterize and clarify the essence and development of A. Adler's Individual Psychology, his independent status, the approach to the problems of psychology, the man concepts of the model of personality: I) the inferiority feeling, 2) its striving for saperiority and 3) the social feeling. Especially is shown the central place of social feeling in the process of forming of the life style. There is shown the central place of social feeling in. the Adler's conception.