" " (1980-1998 .).  ... 

188

 

 

XXVI CONGRESS OF THE CPSU AND URGENT PROBLEMS OF SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY

 

B. D. Parygin

 

The article describes the general state of social psychology in this country, and outlines main directions of its development. Special accent is made on current practical and theoretical problems and tasks set before the discipline by the XXVI Congress of the CPSU. Social psychologists are urged to realize more extensively the creative potential of their science, to take wider and more efficient part in the improvement of control over all branches of the national economy, and to apply quickly and effectively in practical work the newest scientific findings.

 

THEORY OF THE LEARNING ACTIVITY OF SCHOOLCHILDREN

 

V. V. Davydov, A. K. Markova

 

The authors present main principles, categories, and methods employed in the theory of the learning activity, as well as basic results of the studies based on this theory. It is also shown in the article that some indices of the learning activity development can be used as the qualitative criteria of the efficiency of the school educational process.

 

SOME PROBLEMS OF THE INTERPERSONAL COGNITION IN MODERN INDUSTRY

 

A. A. Bodaliov, I. P. Volkov

 

The authors analyse at both theoretical and empirical levels the social-psychological aspects of the interpersonal cognition under conditions of modern industrial production. Some trends in the scientific-technical progress are presented, as well as their negative effects on the processes of social perception. Experimental studies which illustrate regularities of the interpersonal cognition in industry are cited.

 

SOME FEATURES OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE OBJECT ACTIVITY IN THE ONTOGENESIS

 

D. I. Feldslein

 

The article deals with the development of the object activity in the ontogenesis, as well as with the mechanisms of this development. Two lines of the activity development: practical activity with things and development of the interpersonal communication are particularly described in their individual dynamic characteristics and in their interrelations. Special attention is paid to the analysis of the acquisition by child of norms of the intercommunication at different developmental stages. This activity is believed to be a regular process and therefore can be instrumental in exertion of purposeful influences on the need-motivational sphere of the developing personality.

 

189

 

ON THE PURPOSEFUL DEVELOPMENT OF MORAL CONVICTIONS IN SCHOOLCHILDREN

 

G. M. Shakirova

 

It has been found out in the study that the moralistic information present in the books studied in the 5-th form is much better acquired when the process of acquisition is intentionally organized by the teacher on the basis of preliminary developed psychological-pedagogical criteria. Under these conditions not only more children are able to acquire the information, but the corresponding knowledge is significantly richer in its content and in the quality of the components of the latter. In its turn the moral convictions obtained in this way influence more effectively the moral development of children in general. It has been experimentally shown by the author that the moral convictions formed at the lessons of literature are used by children as the basis for making moral decisions in the "real-life" test situations. In other words, they become part and parcel of the general system of moral convictions which is one of the basic psychological mechanisms of the behavior regulation.

 

INFLUENCE OF THE ACHIEVEMENT AND AVOIDANCE MOTIVATION ON PERFORMANCE REGULATION

 

V. I. Stepansky

 

Discrepancy of the n. Ach. scores and the efficiency of performance, as well as similar doubts about the reliability and validity of McClelland-Atkinson modified TAT technique result in the development of objective methods of studying the role of the achievement and avoidance motives in the individual performance. The method used in the reported study is based on the assumption that there should exist a direct connection between the motivation and the subjective criteria of success which can be revealed through the analysis of the regulation of performance by means of a specially developed procedure.

The obtained data has shown that in the case if the approach-avoidance conflict efficiency of the performance is determined by two factors:

1) dominance of either achievement or avoidance motivation, and

2) psycho-physiological regulation of the performance level. Interpretations of these factors are given in terms of the individual performance strategies and risk-taking behavior.

 

SOME RESULTS OBTAINED IN THE STUDY OF THE PSYCHODYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE INTELLECTUAL ACTIVITY IN MAN

 

A. I. Kroupnov

 

Experimental study of the psychodynamic aspects of man's intellectual activity, and in particular of the temporal characteristics of the latter, of different manifestations of the inner motives and drives for such activity, and of the individual methods and ways of performing intellectual tasks, revealed sufficiently complicated relations between these measurements (features) of the activity. Still relativeley close (though not of the same sign) correlations between the above measurements and

 

190

 

different EEG factors, activation, and the strength of the nervous system has been established.

 

ADAPTATION TO INVERTED RETINAL IMAGES: CONTINUOUS WEARING OF THE 1NVERTOSCOPE IS NOT NECESSARY

 

A. D. Logvinenko, Zhedounova L. G.

 

Results of an experimental study of the adaptation to 'inverted retinal images presented in turns with periods of normal vision are described. The authors' study has revealed that the distributed adaptation requires the same time as the uninterrupted adaptation, and does not differ from the latter in basic characteristics. Thus continuous wearing of the invertoscope is not a necessary requirement for the development of complete perceptual adaptation.

 

CONCERNING THE REALIZATION OF THE POTENTIAL FOR LEARNING IN SCHOOLCHILDREN

 

L. M. Fridman, L. I. Zemtsova

 

Relation between the potential for learning defined through the level of the intellectual activity, and the academic successes has been investigated on a group of senior schoolchildren. Prolonged experimental study has revealed that this relation depends on the type and structure of the learning motivation and becomes positive only when motivation is specifically combined with the level of intellectual activity. Some individual patterns of learning in children with different levels of the intellectual activity are presented.

 

THREE APPROACHES TO STUDYING PSYCHOLOGICAL COMPATIBILITY

 

N. N. Obozov, A. N. Obozova

 

The article deals with the analysis of the modern approaches to studying psychological compatibilitystructural, functional and adaptive. The authors analyse the concept of compatibility, principal regularities and criteria of this phenomenon. They consider the differences between the phenomena of harmony in work and those of compatibility.

 

ON THE PECULIARITIES OF COGNITIVE SELF-APPRAISAL IN PATIENTS WITH BRAIN LESIONS

 

D. V. Olshansky

 

The structure of the image of "self" (and particularly of its emotive and cognitive components) has been studied by the author in the neuropsychological clinic on patients with disturbed personalities. 15 patients

 

191

 

with lesions predominantly in the left frontal lobe, and 15in the right lobe have been given the author's modification of the procedure for cognitive self-appraisal. Patients were to appraise mentally the level of presence in them of certain experimentally varied qualities. The two groups of patients showed significantly different results. It is possible therefore to assume that lesions in the right frontal lobe are accompanied by radical disturbance of inner mechanisms of cognitive self-appraisal (i. e. of the mechanisms which regulate the logic of subjective scaling and the situational differentiation of the "self-image).

 

INDIVIDUAL PECULIARITIES OF SPATIAL SYNCHRONIZATION OF BRAIN'S BIOPOTENTIALS AS A FUNCTION OF THE STRENGTH OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM

 

Ye. P. Belyayeva

 

Spatial synchronization (SS) in the EEG of 78 years old children differing in the strength of the nervous system has been studied. Choice reactions and probabilistic predictions were used as functional loads. The strength of the nervous system has been found to manifest itself in SS patterns as they develop in rest and in making choice reactions. Since both "strong" and "weak" subjects were equally efficient in making their choices the author believes that SS reflects individual strategies of performance. No correlation between the peculiarities of individual predictions and the strength of the nervous system has been found.

 

CONNECTION BETWEEN INTELLECTUAL CREATIVE ABILITIES AND EXTRAVERSIONINTROVERSION

 

A. M. Petraiteete

 

The article discusses the problem of specifics of environmental contact influence on intellectual creative abilities display; on quantitative (productivity) and qualitative (originality) indices. Orientation, mainly to some stimulus or situation, is defined as extroversion while orientation to one's own internal worldas introversion. Two types of extraversionintroversion are marked out, namely one on the perception level and the second on the social level. The data allow to judge about these two indices independence first and secondabout their heterogenous influence on the intellectual creative abilities manifestations.