" " (1980-1998 .).  ... 

186

 

 

I. N. ULJANOV AS A PEOPLE TEACHER AND ENLIGHTENER

 

A. A. Nikolskaya

 

The article is devoted to the 150-th anniversary 1. N. Uljanov, an outstanding Russian people's enlightener of the second half of the XIX centuary. His activity greatly favoured progressive pedagpgical ideas spreading and realization in pedagogical practice, truely scientific pedagogics formation, in particularly, its formation on the psychological basis that turned out to be one of the most important stimuli of children and pedagogical psychology formation as separate branches of psychological science. I. N. Uljanov's activity is described from point of social-historical conditions of Aussia at that time and his role in substaining progressive dieas of upbringing and introduction of advanced methods of teaching.

 

THE PROBLEM OF THE FUTURE TEACHER PSYCHOLOGICAL-PEDAGOGICAL EDUCATION SYSTEM IMPROVING

 

A. I. Shcherbakov

 

The article discusses the problems of future teachers psychological-pedagogical education system developing in the process of their professional training at high school. The main investigations were carried out by Pedagogical education laboratory of General Education of Adults of Scientific-research institute, APS USSR and psychological department of A. I. Gerzen's Leningrad State Pedagogical Institute. Special attention is paid to intersubjects connections in psychological-pedagogical subjects teaching. The author reveals the main directions in intersubjects connections at theoretical, practical and research levels.

 

THE PROBLEM OF A NEW MAN FORMATION AND SOME PROBLEMS OF A PERSON PSYCHOLOGY

 

. I. Dodonov

 

A person formation on the base of key activity depends whether this activity turns out to be an inclination object or inevitable necessity. The attitude towards social inclinations as the very key moment that should be placed in the centre of upbringing work is to be a practical guide for educational work at schools, profession training schools and high school.

 

187

 

DOES SPECIFICALLY VERBAL CHILD THINKING EXIST?

 

P. Tulviste

 

The idea is put forward and substantiated in the present paper that "prescientific" verbal thinking in children is not a specifically childlike phenomenon as stated by Piaget. Rather, the child learns this kind of thinking from culture, where it plays an indispensable role in many kinds of "adult" cultural activities. The qualitative difference between the thinking in child and in adult is not that children have one thinking and adults another, different one. Instead, the difference seems to be determined by the fact that the child has already acquired some of the many types of verbal thinking present in culture, but not yet all. There is no child thought and no adult thought. Rather, different types of verbal thinking exist which correspond functionally to 'different kinds of cultural activities. In the second half of the paper, the general views presented in the first half are applied to the origins and fate of animistic thinking in children. Data are provided for the cultural origins of animistic thinking in the child. The functions of animistic thinking in "adult" culture are discussed shortly as well as its necessary enduring in adult.

 

CHILD OF PRESCHOOL AGE PHONOLOGICAL IMAGES FORMATION

 

N. S. Starginskaya

 

In the result of teaching reading and writing the child whole system of language notions including phonological images is reforming. In child mind elementary notions of cardinal language properties such as synthagmatics, phonemic paradigmatics are forming. In the process of specially organised teaching children of preschool age can learn even more complicate phonological relation, in particularly phoneme row notion (paradigma-phonemas). This learning of phonological relations favours to child total linguistic development, some definite "linguistic world outlook" appearance.

 

THE PROBLEM OF AUDITORY PERCEPTION POLYFUNCTIONALITY

 

A. M. Zaltsman

 

The review of auditory perception investigations development history shows that the attention has never been paid to one of the main auditory perception propertiesits polyfunctionalityappearing in the majority of a subject auditory phenomena necessary for his activity, their coexistance in the same perception act and possibility of accenting in any phenomenon conciousness. Such a situation is connected with the approach formed in natural science and transferred into the field of auditory study according to which some perception phenomenon is used as a start initial point and afterwards this phenomenon determinants and mechanisms are looking for. On the basis of Soviet psychologists notions about perception as polyfunctional in its nature process of objects reflection the following problem is put toward: What with and how the auditory perception polyfunctionality is provided? The theoretical and practical importance of this problem study is shown.

 

188

 

THE IMAGE AND VERBAL COMPONENTS INTERACTION IN PROCESSES OF UNDERSTANDING

 

A. D. Malahova

 

Whether the functions of image and verbal mind codes is basal or auxilliary in an understanding act depends on task presentation form. At the same time their balance in thinking is due to the problem form as much as inner regularities of the understanding process. The valid understanding of situation is provided by some information redundancy on account of sinchronous (double) image and verbal codes work and besides through using key phrases or images to reduce information redundancy in the parts of particular meaning.

 

ON TIME STRUCTURE OF A PERSON SENSORY-MOTOR REACTIONS

 

T. A. Panteleeva

 

The investigation is devoted to sensory-motor reaction time structure analysis as stimuli intensity and sensory task complicity were being changed. Three components of total RT were measured separately: pre-motor time, the EMG latency in acting muscle and two motor times time between EMG reation and the begining of movement and motor time. Magnitude and dynamics of these components and the total RT were compared. The results show the components functional independence and their separate contribution to total RT due to sensory and motor processes roles in the whole sensorymotor reaction.

 

DEVELOPMENT OF SOME NERVES SYSTEM PROPERTIES UNDER STENOGRAPHY TRAINING INFLUENCE

 

L. A. Yatnek, V. A. Suzdaleva

 

Two groups of subjects at the age of 1718 who were taught stenography (stenographists group) and those who'd never dealt with it (control group) were tested for CNS mobility changes (CFF indice) and besides for velocity of movements and mental operations. The comparison of data obtained through two years period showed the much rapid increase in operation velosity and CNS mobility in stenographists group rather than in control group. In addition the connection between shorthand writing velosity and CNS mobility changes was revealed.

 

APPRAISING CRITERIONS AND SOCIAL STEREOTYPES STUDY THROUGH SEMANTIC MEASUREMENTS

 

N. A. Rusina

 

Using semantic differential technique aporaising criterions and judgement stereotypes had been experimentally obtained conformably to social notions: "the best friend", "an unpleasant person", "emotional leader", "business leader". Emotional appraising signs were distinguished

 

189

 

as the most important signs of semantic formations in social perception. On the basis of obtained data the author assumes emotional appraising to be the first stage of formation of notion about another person.

 

RORSCHACH'S TEST AND PSYCHIC IMAGE STRUCTURE

 

A. M. Etkind

 

On the basis of his own investigations data and materiales in literature the author analizes strong and weak features of Rorschach's test. The main conclusion consists of the test theoretical validity and its particular importance for such psychological aspects as investigations on emotions, affect, person psychology, mental health and others.

 

PSYCHOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF LITERATURE TEXTS UNDERSTANDING BY CNILDREN OF PRESCHOOL AGE

 

E. V. Bodrova

 

The author analizes the problem of literature texts understanding by children preschool age through psychological investigations of children intellectual upbringing. The training experiment in the course of which a new method of "modified texts" had been used showed that the level of understanding of complicated literature texts was really raised due to some skills and notions formation. Activization of children of preschool age intellectual experimenting with a text formed their creative attitude towards works of literature.

 

CHILD OF PRESCHOOL AGE NOTIONS ABOUT MECHANICAL CONNECTIONS AND DEPENDENCES FORMATION

 

R. P. Chepene

 

The 26 children of preschool senior age did tasks that required lever principle understanding. In the experimental group the children were trained to form "mechanical connections spaced modelling" using card-diagrams; which were given children at first ready-made and afterwards the children made them up themselves. In control group the children were tought through practical actions and "impellent modelling". The comparison testified to the advantage of spaced visual models.

 

STATUS AND ANXIETY STATE OF STUDENTS IN THE GROUPS OF VARYING SOCIAL MATURITY

 

Yu. L. Hanin, G. V. Bulanova

 

Using the sample of 131 female students as subjects it was found that instrumental leaders in 9 sports groups of varying social maturity felt less anxiety than their low status counterparts. These differences in more socially mature groups were not significant. Also no significant differences were found in the anxiety level of high and low interpersonal

 

190

 

status members irrespective of the degree of social maturity of their groups. Theoretical and applied implications of the obtained findings are discussed in terms of the concept of activity determination. A-state in the group is suggested as a meaningful and informative variable in future social psychological studies of personality within the system of interpersonal and group influences.

 

DIAGNOSTICS TEST OF PROFESSIONAL ACHIEVEMENTS (FOR WEAVER-CARPETMAKERS)

 

E. M. orisova

 

The experience of constructing the professional achievements oral test for weaver-carpetmakers is presented in the article. The main steps of question selection, their complicity estimation, test reliability and validity revealing are considered. The test practical utilization for weaver-carpetmakers professional training optimization and checking level of workers professional skills are discussed.

 

DYNAMICS OF "ONE'S OWN PROFESSION IMAGE" ACCORDING TO THE EXTENT OF ACCUSTOMING TO IT

 

V. V. Ovsyannikova

 

An attempt to reveal some common and typical regularities in dynamics of notions about one's own profession according to the extent of accustoming to it has been made. The students of various secondary trade schools (telephonists, jewellers, radio mechanics, opticians) have been chosen as an object of the present investigation.

The Klimov's technique of the so called associative profession field revealing was used. Total number of associative professions, associations qualitative composition, professions relationship features, noted by the subjects, constituated indices for evaluating and conceptualizing of regularities. On the base of recieved data the investigators came to the conclusion that the student's notions of his future profession used to change due to the extent of accustoming to it. It is possible to facilitate mastering it through more precise definition of his profession image.

 

THE EMOTIONAL TENSE STRENGTH INFLUENCE ON MIND HEMISPHERE DYNAMICS DOMINANCE

 

V. F. Konovalov, V. N. Sobolev, I. S. Soboleva

 

80 adult subjectsrighthanders were employed to study emotional tense strength of different levels influence on the results of one of the mind hemispheres priority in providing speech-movement reactions revealing and on mind hemispheres interaction dynamics.

The method of measuring RT verbal stimuli, produced mono- and binauraly at different emotional state predetermined with liedetection was used. It was discovered that in case of stimuli monaural production while relax state changed for tense strength the left hemisphere mechanism priority occured to be gone and changed for the right hemisphere mechanism priority.

 

191

 

CONNECTION BETWEEN INTELLECTUAL CREATIVE ABILITIES AND EXTROVERSIONINTEROVERSION

 

A. M. Periitite

 

The article discusses the problem of specifics of environmental contact influence on intellectual creative abilities display; on quantitative (productivity) and qualitative (originality) indices. Orientation, mainly, on some stimulus or situation, is defined as extroversion while orientation on one's own internal worldas introversion. Two types of extroversioninteroversion are marked out, namely one on the perception level and the second on the social level. The data allow to judge about these two indices independence first and second their heterogenous influence on intellectual creative abilities display.

 

 

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