ÐÅÇÞÌÅ ÍÀ ÀÍÃËÈÉÑÊÎÌ ßÇÛÊÅ
CURRENT PROBLEMS OF THE PSYCHOLOGY OF MANAGEMENT
V. I. Tchernienilov
The author considers some theoretical and methodological problems which appear in realization of the so-cal-led activity approach to the analysis of the management processes. Different theoretical and experimental data are used in order to present the fundamental ideas employed in the psychology of management, as well as the psychological concepts and postulates specific to particular schools of management. Special attention is devoted to the concept of the managerial cycle and to the limitations of its use in the psychological study. At greater length the author discusses psychological aspects of the cordinated activity which is defined as an important direction of the psychological-managerial research.
ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE CONCEPT OF THE TEXT IN THE PROCESS OF UNDERSTANDING
G. D. Tchistiakova
The article presents a study of the transition from text to meaning which occurs in the process of understanding a text. Different stages of processing texts at the level of the internal speech are described—from appearance of supports for understanding to complete understanding of a text. Experimental variation of the ratio between new and familiar textual information enabled the author to establish the internal dynamics of the thought process in understanding texts. This dynamics centers around the subjective concept of the text which gradually develops at the level of the internal speech and represents the meaning of the text as a whole as it has been understood by the subject. Integral character of the concept is the product of the reconstruction of the objective relations between the described elements on the basis of preliminary knowledge. The degree of the meaningful processing of the text is a measure of the efficiency of the understanding process.
EMOTIONAL REGULATION OF VERBAL BEHAVIOR
N. V. Viit
This paper presents a short theoretical analysis of the emotional regulation as a specific level of psychic regulation, as well as some data obtained in an experimental study of it by means of the content-analysis of verbal task performance. Major findings are as follows: verbal behavior proves to be a suitable material for the experimental investigation of the emotional regulation; both voluntary and involuntary forms of the emotional regulation of the verbal behavior depend on the dominating emotion in the individual structure of the emotionality and on the orientation to a particular type of the detected stressors.
ON THE INDIVIDUAL-PSYCHOLOGICAL SPECIFICITY OF DIFFERENT EMOTIONALITY TYPES
V. A. Pintchouk
The goal of the reported study was to establish individual correlations between persistent characteristics of the emotionality and different psychological features. It has been found out as the result of the study that dominance of qualitatively different emotions is connected witfl particular clusters of psychological features. The facts obtained in the study contribute to better understanding of the psychological specificity of the emotionality types differing in the persistently dominating emotions. The study also proved validity of the procedures designed to reveal the quality of the persistently dominating emotions.
PSYCHOLOGICAL FOUNDATIONS OF THE "MUSICAL EFFECT" IN THE LIGHT OF THE GENERAL THEORY OF PRODUCTIVE ACTIVITY
À. I. Rozov
According to the author's conception, primarily elaborated for the interpretation of heuristic activity and proved adequate for the explanation of comicality too, there exist two inner mechanisms — anaxiomatization and hyperaximatization (depreciation and overestimation of psychic entities respectively) which reciprocally induce one another. That is why depreciation of commonness may bring about the impression of something wonderful—a special form of overestimation. The combination of sounds constituting music essentially differs from that which is perceived in natural conditions. It is this extraordinariness of music, as contrasted to the common background acoustic material, which produces the magical effect of the former and simultaneously enhances the imperative force in any auditory signal. Appearance of the specific musical effect is the combined outcome of the above factors.
SOCIAL-PSYCHOLOGICAL DISADAPTATION OF THE INDIVIDUAL AND THE SUICIDAL BEHAVIOR
A. N. Ambroumova, V. A. Tikhonenko, L. A. Bergelson
Some psychological aspects of the study of the suicidal behavior are discussed by the authors in connection with the organization of the anti-suicide service in this country. A number of experimental data are presented and reviewed; it is shown that corresponding studies share the factor methodology, and that the suicidal personalities are described in them in phenotypical terms. A different (so-called essential-genetical) approach is suggested by the authors. It is based on the concept of the social-psychological disadaptation, some particular forms of which are believed to be responsible for the production of the suicidal behavior.
DYNAMICS OF THE VISUAL PERCEPTION IN RORSCHACH TEST IN PRE—SCHOOL CHILDREN
Â. I. Bielyi
Interpretations of the Rorschach blots by 250 3-7 years old children have been analyzed. It has been found out that the basic feature which characterizes the dynamics of visual perception in school-children is the progressive improvement of the perception of form. Quantitatively it is manifested in ever increasing proportion of the "good form", "popular", and form-colour answers; qualitatively—in gradual increase in the complexity of the form of the clearly perceived blots. Children's perception is characterized by confabulatory answers and by relatively large number of perceverations. 6-7 years old boys produce more kinesthetic answers, while girls of this age produce more colour answers; they also outstrip boys in development of the perception of form. Comparison of the data with that obtained in patients with one-side brain leasures has enabled the author to suggest that improvement of the form perception in children is connected with development of gestalts in the right hemisphere. It has been assumed that the confabulatory answers appear at those stages of development when gestalts of the lower levels of the visual perception have already been formed while the brain structures underlying the clear perception of more complicated shapes have not yet been fully matured
THEORETICAL ASPECTS OF THE STUDY OF THE CRITICAL THINKING
S. A. Korol
The author describes several functions of the critical thinking: evaluation and testing, stimulation of the search for a new information, correction (rational organization of the zone of the search for the new information), prediction. These functions determine main directions of the experimental study of thinking. The author demonstrates significance of the study of the critical thinking for the formulation of a wider range of corresponding problems; he names central issues to be experimentally dealt with in order to deepen our understanding of the nature of the critical thinking, and discusses the role of the problem raised in the article in the development of the pedagogical and age psychology.
CHANGES IN THE ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM PROPERTIES AS A FUNCTION OF REINFORCEMENT
Â. B. Pysin
Indices of the speed of extinction with different reinforcement agents can be treated in different ways. While the speed of extinction with conditional-orienting reinforcement points to the streghth of the excitatory process (and, perhaps, of the excitation-inhibition balance), the speed of extinction with defensive reinforcement is an index of the lability.
The results of the study confirm V. S. Merlin hypothesis that in different biologically adaptive integral acts the same indices may characterize different aspects of the nervous system type.
AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF SOCIAL PERCEPTION IN A GROUP OF COMMUNICATING STUDENTS
N. D. Tvorogova
In the reported paper social perception is regarded as a necessary element of communication which helps to establish positive interrelations between people. Two indices of the social perception have been experimentally studied: affiliative and disaffiliative expectations. The study reveals intercorrelations between the adequacy of the individual social perception, on the one hand, and motivation, communication technique (the range of communicatory operations and acts), and evaluation of one's performance, on the other hand. It has been established that the level of development of the group, of which an individual is a member, significantly influences his social perception.
PSYSHOLOGICAL PECULIARITIES OF THE ATTITUDE TO SPORTS IN ADOLESCENTS
Â. I. Sarsenbayeva
The article deals with an insufficiently known problem of the influence of sports on the development of personality in adolescents, and in particular on the development of their social attitudes. The author states a new understanding of the sport activity as an important factor of changes in the need-motivational sphere, and of the comprehension by an individual of the social content of the sports. In the traditional pedagogics organization of the sport activity is primarily directed at production of improvements in the motoric sphere; however in the author's view it must be used as a means of development of the collectivistic attitudes. A hypothesis that in the process of the stage-by-stage organization of a sport activity there take place corresponding changes in motivation has been experimentally checked.
LOGIC OF THE SCIENCE DEVELOPMENT AND CREATIVE ONTOGENESIS OF PARTICULAR SCIENTISTS
M. G. Yaroshevsky
The role of inherent logical forms of the science development in the intellectual ontogenesis of particular scientists is considered in the article. Among these forms the most important one for the psychological cognition is the principle of determinism. Evolution of the form of the determinism has been discussed in the preceding publication of the author ("Voprosy Psikhologii", 1981, N3). Succession of the determinism forms in the history of science is compared to stages in the creative work of I. M. Sectchenov — the founder of the objective psychology, and a conclusion is made that in the development of a scientist there are phenomena which by analogy with the biogenetical ones may be called the ideogenetical phenomena. It means that in the scientific ontogenesis there may reproduce in a reduced and modified way the stages which occured in the philogenesis of the science.