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V. I. LENIN'S PRINCIPLES OF PROPAGANDA AND PSYCHOLOGY OF THE PROPAGANDISTS COMMUNICATION

I. A. Zimnyaya

V. I. Lenin's principles determining the content and the organizational-methodological aspects of the propagandistic communication are considered as a system of interdependable components. The basic principle of the successful propaganda consists in the organization of active and conscious acquisition of the propaganda material by the audience. The latter is regarded by the author as a collective subject of communication.

 

PSYCHOLOGIGAL-PEDAGOGICAL PROBLEMS OF THE HIGHER EDUCATION

. V. Koudriavtsev

The author discusses the following trends in the improving of the higher education: stronger accent on fundamental disciplines with the view to prepare experts of broader specialization; teaching more of the humanities in technical schools, and more of physical and technical subjects in the humanities schools and departments; combining general education and professional specialization in the total process of the development of the creative personality; preference of research and problem-solving methods of teaching over the traditional informational methods; introduction of new forms of the on-the-job training; introduction of new organizational forms of admission to higher schools and of new forms of vocational orientation; better practical preparation of students, introduction into the teaching process of the technical means and of the computerized automated means; extensive bringing of the students into the scientific-research work.

 

THEORETICAL PROBLEMS OF STUDYING THE UNCONSCIOUS

. K. Tikhomirov

Theoretical problems of the study of the unconscious phenomena are discussed in the paper. The author assumes that the unconscious psychological problems are qualitatively different from the informational processes studied by the contemporary cybernetics. In the author's opinion both the notion of "the structure of set" and the notion of "the psychological set" require more precise definition, while the phenomenon of the primary set is evidently not sufficiently studied. It is shown that main difficulties in the study of the unconscious are not specific. The concept of the unverbalized operational meaning is presented as a new unit to be used in the experimental-psychological study of the unconscious. The place of the unconscious phenomena in the general structure of the psychological knowledge is indicated.

 

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CONCERNING THE DEFINITION OF TASKS IN THE PSYCHOLOGICAL STUDY OF THE PERSONALITY

V. A. Petrovsky

The author presents an original description of the following systemic aspects of the personality: intra-individual, intra-individual, and meta-individual. Each of the aspects constitutes a specific object in the psychological study of the personality. Omission of any of them leads to a misinterpretation of the general structure of the latter. The author's assumptions may provide a basis for development of an integral programm of research in the psychology of the personality.

 

THE PSYCHOLOGY OF SEX DIFFERENCES

I. S. Kon

The development of sex identity/role and the nature and extent of psychological sex differences are discussed. As has been established in the developmental psychology and in the inter-sex clinical studies, sex identity/role is a function of a combined process of the ontogenetic differentiation, sex-role socialization, and of the development of self-awareness. Some methodological problems of masculinity, femininity, and androgyny assessment are discussed, and the necessity of the interdisciplinary research is stressed.

 

ON THE INTERRELATION BETWEEN THE PECULIARITIES OF COMMUNICATION AND THE SOCIAL-PERCEPTUAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PERSONALITY

V. V. Ryzhov

Social perception which is an important mechanism of understanding others, comprises one of the most important professional qualities of a teacher. Study of this systemic quality in students as a function of the content and style of communication revealed positive correlation between these two groups of individual characteristics. An optimal organization of the immediate communication leads to a full development of the capacity for social perception. Gnostic aspects of communication can therefore be significantly improved in the process of professional training of teachers by means of improvement of the general system of individual communication.

 

GENESIS OF SOME BEHAVIORAL ASPECTS OF THE PERSONALITY IN THE PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN AS A FUNCTION OF THE MODUS OF COMMUNICATION

Ye. V. Soubbotsky

Educational sessions in two groups of the kindergarten children were reorganized in such a way that the teachers and children occupied

 

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in turns positions of "the teacher" and of "the pupil". Control tests revealed that independence of behaviour in the experimental groups significantly increased while in the control groups it decreased. In the experimental groups the spontaneous creative activity of children at the drawing and clay modelling lessons were significantly higher as compared with control groups.

 

DYNAMICS OF THE PSYCHOLOGICAL REFRACTORINESS IN MOTOR ACTIVITY

N. D. Gordeyeva

Results of the investigation have shown an undulatory nature of the refractory curve, which has enabled the author to suggest that the refractory waves contain the information necessary for the identification of a quantum structure in the motor components of the senso-motor act. The experimentally found zones of different sensitivity to the second signal confirm the hypothesis of the heterogeneity of the act as a whole and of its components.

 

ANALYSIS OF THE STRUCTURE OF THE PERSONALITY QUESTIONNAIRE SCALES

L. T. Yampolsky

The article presents results of a study of the interscale structure of the MMPI and 16PF personality questionnaires. It has been shown that the content of all the scales of the two questionnaires can be reduced to the following five factors: psychotism, anxiety, neuroticism, extraversion, and spiritual organization.

 

CONCERNING THE CAUSES OF FORGETTING THE MUSICAL INFORMATION

V. A. Salin

Experimental results confirmed by subsequent self-reports of the subjects revealed dependence of the mnemic effect on the activity of the subjects in relation to the material to be memorized. In the long run this activity manifested itself in the completeness and in the degree of the unfoldedness of the mnemic activity. The author's results have shown that future performers of music should be specially taught specific mnemic operations in order to help them to develop clear acoustic images relatively insensitive to different types of interference.

 

TEACHING AS A METHOD OF STUDYING MENTAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE CHILD IN GENEVA PSYCHOLOGICAL SCHOOL

G. V. Bourmenskaya

The author reviews basic principles and features of the "cognitive learning method" developed by J. Piaget's associates. Special attention

 

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is given to the analysis of J. Piaget's idea that cognitive conflicts are a necessary condition for the developing education. In general, turning of the Geneva psychological school to the educational experiment is regarded as a recognition of limitations of descriptive methods of research.

 

A SYSTEM OF EDUCATIONAL TASKS AND PSYCHOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES OF ORGANIZING IT

T. A. Poushkina

Logical-psychological principles of structuring educational tasks are considered in the article. It is stated that systems of tasks directed to the development in children of the theoretical thinking are the most efficient from the point of view of the psychological development. Proceeding from this the author defines some psychological requirements to such systems of tasks and formulates some principles of constructing them. Results of the formative experiment performed in accordance with the stated principles show that these systems of tasks are also efficient in the development of inner learning motivation.

 

ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF CERTAIN FEATURES OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM IN ONTOGENESIS

. O. Santrosian, S. A. Salatinian

Development of different features of the nervous system under the influence of the natural factor of age and of the socially determined factor of sport activityis considered in the paper. The nervous system develops heterochroniously; sensitivitytill 9 years, reactivitytill 12 years, and labilitytill 13 years. In the ontogenesis potentialities get realized only within specific forms of activity, corresponding activities therefore can be controled and intentionally organized.

 

FOLLOW-UP PROCESSES IN VOLUNTARY MEMORIZATION OF LIGHT SPOTS

I. V. Yermakova

Follow-up changes in excitability have been studied by means of registration and comparisons of RT to paired light spot stimuli. The second stimulus in the pair followed the first after different intervals of time. The stimuli appeared in different points of the visual field and the subjects had to remember and reproduce the order of their localizations. The data obtained in the study show that those areas of the visual analyzer which have been stimulated by the light spots are significantly more excited as compared with indifferent areas.