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SOME PHILOSOPHICALMETHODOLOGICAL PROBLEMS OF THE PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH

 

F. T. Mikhailov

 

In the view of the author of the given article the most fundamental psychological categories are not yet elaborated deeply enough, which necessarily results in reductionism in the understanding of the subject-matter and methodology of psychology. In particular psychological phenomena are reduced to empirical descriptions of objects. As a consequence of this approach any coincidence of the experimental data with the initial premises belonging to the sphere of every-day notions, are taken by the psychologist for a scientific fact. The only possibility to correct the situation is seen by the author in the development of those theoretical concepts which appeared in the course of man's activity with things as the most universal designations of the identity of the subjective and the objective. The author believes that his position is a realization of the dialectical approach to the scientific research and, if followed, may lead to proper definition of the psychological subject-matter.

 

THE CONCEPT OF PERSONALITY IN PSYCHOLOGY FROM THE POINT OF VIEW OF THE SYSTEMS APPROACH

 

A. V. Petrovsky

 

Different approaches to the understanding of the personality as a psychological category are reviewed. The author reveals the systematizing value of the activity-mediation principle for the description in psychological terms of the place of the personality in the structure of the subject-object-subject and subject-subject-object relations.

 

L. S. VYGOTSKY'S THEORY AND THE ACTIVITY PRINCIPLE IN PSYCHOLOGY

 

V. V. Davydov, L. A. Radzikhovsky

 

The authors continue the description of Vygotsky's concepts started in Article I. On the material of Vygotsky's manuscript "Historical meaning of the crisis in psychology" (1926) they show how he seeked to pull apart in the conceptual apparatus of psychological theories the concept of the "explanatory principle", and the concept of the "object of study", and to establish the dynamical structure of relations between the two. It is shown also how there appears in Vygotsky's psychological theory the concept of the historically developing practical activity with things in the

 

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role of a general explanatory principle. Further in the article proceeding from this concept the authors logically reconstruct Vygotsky's "cultural-historical theory" and outline further perspectives in the development of his views and of the activity principle in psychology as a whole.

 

THEORETICAL PROBLEMS OF STUDYING THE DECISION-MAKING PROCESS IN THE ORGANIZATIONAL-MANAGERIAL ACTIVITY

 

S. D. Neverkovitch, A. A. Tiukov

 

The authors analyse different theoretical approaches to the problem of the decision-making and lay grounds for a multi-component theory of the decision-making in the organizational-managerial activity. It is stated in the critical review of the formal theories that they are based on reductionists assumptions and include into the total structure of activity fundamentally incompatible elements. The decision-making process is presented in the article as a set of a number of decisions which occur at different levels of activitydecisions concerning acceptance and formulation of tasks, modelling of situations, planning, selection of strategies, distribution of functions between group members, estimation and control of results. In order to solve problems which may arise in the organization of complex studies the authors recommend to use normative descriptions and to reveal characteristics of psychological mechanisms by means of comparing them with normative models. An organizational-psychological approach to the study of the managerial decision-making processes is suggested.

 

IMAGES AS A BASIS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE CONCEPTUAL THINKING

 

. I. Maliutin

 

Thinking in images does not rule out the so-called conceptual thinking; more than that it can facilitate development of the latter when images do not play exclusively the role of illustrations but fixate general relations which may exist in the cognized object as well as general ways of using it. The author has developed a set of psychological requirements to the graphical-visual aids used in school which may be used for the further elaboration of the principle of visualization in teaching as applied, to different subjects.

 

CONTENT OF OPERATIONS IN SOLVING PROBLEMS ON "QUICK-WITTEDNESS"

 

B. D. El'konin

 

The author discusses the possibility of transfer from the direct to the-mediated solving of the so-called problems on quick-wittedness. Mediation of the solving is defined as mediation of the intertransition of the problem's

 

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conditions and goal. The object where this intertransition takes place comprises the content of the orienting activity in the solving of the quickwittedness problems. The author's experiments have shown that this object can be built only when the "trajectory" of operations required by the problem, i. e. the succession of the data processes in the process of problem-solving, can be represented as an entity to be transformed. In this case the data themselves appear not as a set of separate cues for required operations but as an object different transformations of which afford different trajectories of the required operation.

 

ANALYSIS OF THE STRUCTURE OF THE PERSONALITY QUESTONNAIRE SCALES

 

L. T. Yampolsky

 

The article presents results of a study of the interscale structure of the MMPI and 16PF personality questionnaires. It has been shown that the content of all the scales of the two questionnaires can be reduced to the following five factors: psychotism, anxiety, neuroticism, extraversion, and spiritual organization.

 

A PROCEDURE FOR THE STUDY OF THE EARLIER STAGES OF THE ABSTRACTING PROCESS

 

A. V. Atyemasov

 

According to the views developed by N. I. Chuprikova, at the early stages of its development the process of abstracting is based on progressive differentiation of patterns of sensations induced by particular objects in the sense organs into parts corresponding to the perceived properties. Thus there appears a necessity in a special procedure which will make it possible to show how infants detect and perceive particular features in surrounding objects.

Analysis of the existing methods enabled the author to suggest a procedure which aims to reveal the capacity of the subject to establish similarity between stimulus objects. In the course of the experiment the similarity is progressively decreasedfrom complete identity of objects in the beginning till sharing of only one property of the given type.

Slight modification of the procedure will make it possible to use it in experiments with primates.

 

EFFICIENGY OF MEMORIZATION AT DIFFERENT STAGES OF RETENTION

 

A. T. Bondar', L. G. Voronin

 

In the experiment performed on 120 schoolchildren (11-12 years old) efficiency of memorization of five two-digit numbers has been studied as a function of the time elapsed since first presentation of them. Retention was checked 18, 25, 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 minutes after presentation. In

 

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earlier studies it has been established that the 18-70 minutes interval encompasses a complete cycle on the oscillating retention curve corresponding to the period of active storage of the memory trace. The results obtained in the reported study show that retention is most efficient at the 18 and 70 minutes points of the retention curve representing the extreme points of the curve with facilitated reproduction. These results may be of use in elaboration of rational teaching methods.

 

FOLLOW-UP PROCESSES IN VOLUNTARY MEMORIZATION OF LIGHT SPOTS

 

I. V. Yermakova

 

Follow-up changes in excitability have been studied by means of registration and comparisons of RT to paired light spot stimuli. The second stimulus in the pair followed the first after different intervals of time. The stimuli appeared in different points of the visual field and the subjects had to remember and reproduce the order of their localizations. The data obtained in the study show that those areas of the visual analyzer which have been stimulated by the light spots are significantly more excited as compared with indifferent areas (positive follow-up effect).

 

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HUMAN-OPERATOR'S INDIVIDUAL PROPERTIES, WORK EFFICIENCY, AND TOLERANCE TO MONOTONY

 

Yu. V. Bushov, Yu. A. Ryabchuk

 

An attempt is made in the paper to identify the complex of human-operator's individual properties which determine efficiency of the operator's work under conditions of monotony, and his ability to resist the monotony effects.

It has been established that successful performance of monotoneous work by an operator depends on a number of individual personality properties related to the specificity of the work (e. g. ability to coordinate movements) as well as on a complex of individual properties determining the individual tolerance to the developing monotony states.

It has been shown that strong nervous system, low sensitivity and low background (pre-work) excitability of the nervous system are characteristic of the individuals with low resistance to monotony.

 

DEPENDANCE OF THE LEARNING MOTIVATION ON THE TYPE OF GENERALIZATION OF THE INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIAL

 

Nguen-Ke-Hao

 

Implementation of the universal compulsory secondary education requires development of the positive attitude to learning in the schoolchildren, i. e. development of the school-cognitive motivation. Proper development of the learning activity can be achieved only when it is supported by parallel development of corresponding motivation.