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DEVELOPMENT OF THE ATTITUDE TOWARDS WORK AS A MORAL COMPONENT OF THE INDIVIDUAL VIEW OF THE WORLD
A. I. Lipkina
A moral individual is the one who possesses a definite opinion of man and of his place in the social reality. This opinionŚwhich school is called upon to develop in school age childrenŚis characterized by the conviction that it is only in work that specifically human characterictics can get realized in man. Moral aspects of an individual's outlook are manifested in his attitude to work. The author describes those elements of the teaching process which are to be regarded as basic resources for moral education. Skillful use of them makes it possible to develop in children, in the very process of teaching, lasting forms of behaviour adequate to principles and ideas of the communist outlook.
VALUABILITY AS THE CENTRAL COMPONENT OF THE PERSONALITY STRUCTURE
N. I. Nepomniashiaya, M. Ye. Kanevskaya, O. N. Pakhomova, V. V. Barzalkina, S. M. Roubtsova, E. V. Muzeh
Valuability is one of the most fundamental incentive mechanisms in the structure of personality. It is a unity of selective perception by a subject of only certain characteristics of reality, and of the contents of his "Ego". Correspondingly in the study reported in the article two aspects of valuability were investigated: objective (i.e. related to the subject's orientation to specific contents), and subjective (i.e. related to the peculiarities of his ideas of himself, of his conscious ideas of his "Ego"). It has been shown that these two aspects of valuability are interrelated. Two groups of subjects participated in the study: pre-school 3-7 years old children, and I-VII form schoolchildren.
The data obtained by the authors enable them to make a conclusion that valuability is the central, leading component of the psychological structure of personality. It exerts influence upon other components of the structure and other indices of development (e. g. development of mental activity, learning activity, etc.). The authors studied also some ways of purposive development of valuability.
FORMATION OF ORGANIZED THINKING IN THE PROCESS OF SOLVING SMALL CREATIVE PROBLEMS
P. Ya. Galperin, V. L. Danilova
The authors distinguish in the general structure of solving the so-called "quick-wittedness problems" two kinds of processes: analytical and constructive. It has been noted by the authors that in subjects engaged in solving creative problems the analytical processes are highly disordered. It can be corrected by means of systematic study of the problem, of the problem situation in general, and of the corresponding
hypotheses. The Ss were taught to perform such study in a paired experiment on the basis of stage-by-stage formation of mental acts. As a result of the orderly performance of analytical processes the whole procedure of solving has been drastically changed. Disorderly and unconscious collection of the necessary information, unconscious organization of it ("incubation") accompanied by striking insights (very often erroneous or fruitless), and tendency to base decisions on intuition were substituted with systematic development of the objective content of the problem and of the problem situation, as well as with making up of a wide list of possible solutions (hypotheses) followed by systematic checking of them and by screening of those which do not correspond to the conditions. Thinking becomes free of a lot of subjective limitations, as well as becomes considerably more divergent and productive. The time needed for solving also drastically decreases.
CONCERNING DEVELOPMENT OF A THEORETICAL BASIS FOR ANALYSIS OF THE COMMUNICATION ACTIVITY
V. V. Rizhov
Theoretical treatment of communication as a kind of activity starts with selecting the subject and the object of this activity. If common activity of men (both as a total system or as a modification of it) is taken as the object of communication, and if a social group understood as psychological unity of subjects of common activity is taken as the subject of communication,Śthen the analysis of the contents of communication must be centered around that element in the structure of the common activity to which the activity of communication is directed. In this approach communication can be regarded as the group's integrating activity (integration of the object, of the subjects, and of the process of common activity). Depending on the quality of communication, the integrating activity may result in this or that level of integration of common activity (integration in the system of attitudes, norms, values, etc. including).
ACQUISITION OF ELEMENTARY MATHEMATICAL NOTIONS WITH THE HELP OF DIFFERENT KINDS OF MATERIALIZATION OF THE OBJECTS AND MEANS OF ACTIONS
N. G. Salmina, L. S. Kolmogorova
Experimental teaching of elementary mathematics showed that peculiarities of materialization of the objects of actions can significantly influence the process of orientation in the problem task as well as the very process and outcome of the development of those actions.
The student does not acquire all the information provided by the teacher, he acquires only that which has been incorporated in the action he himself performed, i. e. that which has been ensured by the instructional material he had access to.
No matter what particular kind of instructional matter is used (material, graphical, or symbolic) it is effective only if it is possible to represent with its help the transformation to be learned. It has been shown that in this respect there is no difference between material and graphical means of representation, while symbolic means provide only limited possibilities for representation of real relations of transformation. Therefore
in the early stages of teaching symbolic means should be used in combination with other means of materializationŚmainly as fixators of action's outcomes.
SENSORY ASYMMETRY IN HEALTHY AND LOGONEUROTIC SUBJECTS
Ye. L. Berezhkovskaya, V. I. Golod, Z. G. Tourovskaya
Functional asymmetry of the auditory and visual analyzers in healthy adults and in adult logoneurotic patients was studied. A dichotic listening procedure and a similar dioptic seeing procedure were used. It has been found out that in healthy subjects in both modalities there may be either right-side or left-side asymmetry, and well expressed at that; in logo-neurotic patients in both modalities the asummetry is considerably less expressedŚperception at both sides was found to be practically at the same level.
DEVELOPMENT OF EITHER ASYMMETRY OR SYMMETRY OF VISUAL PERCEPTION IN MAN'S PRACTICAL ACTIVITY
M. A. Matova
The paper presents results of an experimental study of the symmetry/asymmetry characteristics of visual perception in people specially trained in either monocular or binocular perception of meaningful objects. In the study a set of experimental methods was used: measuring monocular fields of vision, determining the leading eye in binocular fixation of an object, etc. There were established statistically significant differences in the degree of symmetry/asymmetry manifestations in Ss (high level sportsmen) who deffered in the functional load on monocular and binocular perceptual systemsŚcorrespondingly, shooters (15 Ss) and tennis-players (21 Ss): visual asymmetry characterizes the Ss of the first group, and visual symmetryŚthe Ss of the second group. The data show that life experience, and in particular purposive practical activity, can be an important factor in the development of individual peculiarities in the functioning of monocular and binocular vision.
ON SOME MAIN CONCEPTS OF THE THEORY OF ACTIONS
G. A. Ball
The concept of action is necessary for analysis of man's practical activity and of cognition. This concept therefore is of great philosophical significance and plays a fundamental role in psychology as well as in sciences adjacent to it, such as neurophysiology, sociology, law. Considering the category of action in close connection with the category of problem the author offers a system of concepts to describe actions. Besides the concept of action itself some other concepts are analysed: acting system, the object of an action and its image in the acting system, purpose of action, action's plan and action's method (as well as the
method's main functional parts), action's results (main and additional, direct and indirect, successful, partly successful, and unsuccessful actions).
ROLE OF THE KIEVŚMOGILIAN ACADEMY IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF PSYCHOLGY IN UKRAINE
A. T. Goubko
The article deals with the earliest period in the history of psychology in the Urkaine (XVIIŚXVIII centuries). The great role of the KievŚ Mogilian Academy (1632Ś1817) in the development of Ukrainian psychological thought is emphasized. The Academy was organized in Kiev by the local nationalŚcultural and religious societyŚThe Kiev Fraternity. In spite of the fact that all the teachers in the Academy were monks of Kiev's Fraternity monastery, it is impossible not to notice materialistic trends in their psychological courses, and especially in courses on sensory processes. The author follows those trends in psychological lecture Ś courses of such professors of the Academy as F. Prokopovitch, I. Gisel, I. KononovitchŚGorbatsky, I. Krokovsky, S. Yavorsky, G. Konissky, and others. Together with Moscow's SlavŚGreekŚLatin Academy the KievŚ Mogilian Academy significantly influenced the later stages of development of social, philosophical, psychological and pedagogical thought in the Ukraine, Russia, Bielorussia, and in some neighboring countries. It is underlined in the paper that creative cooperation between russian and Ukrainian scientists played favourable role in the development of psychology in the Ukraine.
EFFECT OF MUSIC ON PSYCHOŚMOTOR PERFORMANCE AS A FUNCTION OF INDIVIDUAL NEURODYNAMICS
B. A. Viatkin, L. A. Dorfman
It is an established fact that the soŚcalled functional music can influence the quality of performance. The authors of the reported study made an attempt to learn how structurally different music influences man's specific psychoŚmotor functions. It has been found out that the effect produced by music on an individual is determined to a large extend by the strength of his nervous system (and especially by the strength in relation to excitation). However the emotive characteristics of musicŚ such as tempo and scaleŚare also influential factors.
FORMATION OF THE ABILITY FOR INTEGRAL PERCEPTION OF COLOUR IN CHILDREN
Yu. A. Poluyanov
The article deals with the problem of psychological structure of integral perception of colour, and with methods of developing it in 7Ś8 years old children in the process of teaching them fundamentals of painting. An original diagnostic procedure for the corresponding ability is suggested by the author. He also describes an experimental attempt to
form this ability. The reported experiment was at the same time an attempt to realize in practice some principles of development of abilities elaborated in the general psychological theory of activity. The data obtained by the author enables him to conclude that the psychological structure of the studied ability comprises 1) specific perceptual operations which realize sensory standards for harmonized colour combinations, and 2) an emotional reaction to the content characteristics of colour combinations which participate in the image formation process (i. e. which are included into the structure of the ability for imagination).
PSYCHOLOGICAL EXPLANATION OF THE EFFICIENCY OF EDUCATIONAL ROLEŚTAKING GAMES
Ye. P. Koroviakovskaya, O. N. Yudina
RoleŚtaking (imitational) games are practised nowadays on a larger scale with every year as an effective method of teaching both in this country and abroad. However efficiency of the method requires good knowledge of corresponding psychological factors.
A hypothesis is put forward in the paper that the motivation "to achieve success in the game" which appears in a roleŚtaking educational game exerts influence not only on what is comprehended by the playing child, but also on how it is comprehended by him. It has been experimentally shown by the authors that the aboveŚmentioned motivation brings about reŚdistribution of goals of the learning activity. When learning is included into the context of a roleŚtaking game the child sees his leading goal in finding a system of operation which would help him to achieve success. This system of operations, when it is found and comprehended, constitutes the actual mental content of the playing child and is therefore under favourable conditions for acquisition (learning). Repeated and conscious imitation of the found system in game explains to a cosiderable extent the efficiency of the reported method.
USE OF STANDARD COEFFICIENTS IN STUDIES OF PROBABALISTIC FORETELLING
Stepansky V. I., Osnitsky A. Grenader V. B.
The paper is devoted to the new quantative method of experimental result treatment in the domain of probability prediction. It provides calculating of the following individual indices: 1) the success of some structure reflection of stimulus succession; 2) the success of matching some structure constructed by the subject and some existing one; 3) the number of mistakes made due to inadequate structure reflection, inaccuracy of structure matching and also loss of stimuli succession control; 4) the number of ocasional predictions. The indices step by step calculation gives the opportunity to estimate empirical dispersion and' also to reveal initial learning dynamics and represent its quantitative characteristics as well as fluctuations of the prediction efficiency in course of activity.
EFFECS OF THE LEVEL OF MOTIVATION MEANINGFUNESS ON THE PROCESS OF SOLVING "THINKING PROBLEMS"
E. D. Telegina, T. G. Bogdanova
The article deals with those mechanisms which enable a subject to achieve more in solving "thinking problems" when his motivation for this activity becomes more meaningful. As a result of motivation there develops a specific structure of the thinking activity which includes both conscious logical analytical operations and unconscious operations. Unconscious operations were studied by means of an eye-movement registration technique. The more meaningful is the motivation, the larger is the general number of unconscious operations in the structure of the thinking activity and, correspondingly, the more intensive is the work connected with the transformation of them and with the approaching to the final solution. Interaction between the unconscious and conscious levels of thinking activity is also effected: the larger number of unconscious operations is subjected to conscious control and assessment. Negative assessment of the operation's results does not stop any more the search in the given direction (as it used to be in case of low motivation), but contributes to reŚthinking and further development of the operation.
CORRELATION BETWEEN INDIVIDUAL MEMORY AND VOLITION CHARACTERISTICS
Ye. S. Makhlakh, I. A. Rapoport
Some relations between individual volitional characteristics and the level of development of verbal and visual memory in upper class pupils were studied. The following measures of volition were used: Ye. S. Makhlakh's test; teachers' assessment; time and effort spent on solving un-solvable problems; and some others. In order to assess the level of development of verbal and visual memory Ss were asked to memorize various scientificŚpopular texts and geometric shapes.
It has been found out that the level of development of both verbal and visual memory is positively correlated with the level of development of volition. ShortŚterm memory correlated with the level of volition by one index only: verbal recognition.