The turn of the XXI century witnessed a dramatic increase of interest in L.S. Vygotsky in Japanese scientific circles, which led to numerous publications of Japanese researchers analyzing the work of the Russian scientist. Among other issues serious attention has been paid to the question of whether it would be justified to describe the cultural historical theory as a theory of activity, evoking the old argument between L.S. Vygotsky's and S.L. Rubinstein's scientific schools. Japanese authors also draw parallels between L.S. Vygotsky's postulates and modern achievements in humanities and even art, they also praise skilful application of Marxist theory by L.S. Vygotsky. Many of L.S. Vygotsky's ideas have been successfully applied by Japanese scientists to theoretical and applied research.