The author attempts to evaluate the significance of P.Ya. Galperin's theory of stage-by-stage formation for modern-day science and culture. The theory is presented as having many layers, among which one can distinguish the philosophical, the theoretical and the concrete psychological levels of analysis linked by the idea of orientation as the nature and function of the mind. The author is convinced of the necessity of defining the philosophical and humanitarian significance of P.Ya. Galperin's theory in the current epoch of economic and political instability, although it was devised over 50 years ago.